Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1952 Page: 92
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92 REPORT ON EXPERIMENT STATIONS, 1952
Improving the Efficiency of Sanitizing Agents
Metallic equipment in dairy manufacturing plants continues to
present problems that will eventually be solved through new discoveries
in chemistry. For instance, such elements as iron, copper,
zinc, nickel, and others used in the manufacture of vats, tanks, pipes,
and dairy machinery create different trace reactions when milk, water,
and solutions containing cleansing compounds pass through the equipment.
Considerable research on the role of quaternary ammonium
germicides in such reactions has recently been done by the Massachusetts
station. The station's research confirms the theory that any
metallic cation will interfere with the quaternary ammonium germicide
by competing for the negative sites on the cell surface of germs
(bacteria). It was shown that quaternary ammonium compounds
lose their effectiveness (germicidal value) in direct proportion to the
amount and valence of the interfering metallic cations present in
so-called hard water. Monovalent, divalent, and trivalent ions,
respectively, have interfering power in the approximate ratio of
1:100: 10,000. The cations arranged in order of decreasing interference
are aluminum, iron (ferric), copper, zinc, nickel, manganese,
barium, iron (ferrous), magnesium, calcium, and the monovalent
Some of the modern washing agents that quickly remove dirt and
destroy bacteria also corrode the metal surfaces of dairy equipment
and thus cause heavy financial losses. The Michigan station found
that chelating salts improve the detergent action of certain wetting
agents but that they cause excessive corrosion unless inhibited by
such materials as sodium meta-silicate and boric acid salts. This
type of information is most valuable to the companies preparing washing
compounds and to the users of dairy equipment.
Cracked Liners Increase Bacteria Count
The Kansas station has found that when the inner surface of the
rubber teat cup liners to the milking machine becomes covered with
fine cracks it is almost impossible to obtain a low bacteria count milk,
even though these cracks are so fine they can be seen only with a low
power microscope. Such liners, in over 150 comparisons under practical
and laboratory conditions, gave counts of from 5 to 100 times
as high as new liners or liners with little surface breakdown.
Food Storage and Processing
The full benefits of increased food production can be realized only
if there is concurrent development of food storage and processing
techniques. Technological developments, such as those noted in the
following examples, lead to twofold gain: First, they insure conservation
of an increased quantity of seasonal surpluses of food crops;
and, second, they insure improved retention of quality and nutritive
value in the foods as processed and stored.
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United States. Office of Experiment Stations. Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1952, book, January 1953; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5990/m1/94/: accessed March 30, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.