Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1952 Page: 91
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DAIRY INDUSTRY 91
The Wisconsin station has perfected a device for mechanically
measuring the firmness of cheese curd. It can be used on a wide range
of products from Romano to typical cheese spreads. It is expected
that it can be applied commercially in standardizing the slicing properties
of process cheese, judging the firmness of fresh cheese, evaluating
the rate of body breakdown of cheese during curing, and selecting
cheese for specific market requirements.
The Indiana station conducted studies to determine the relationship
between the production of lactic acid in miniature Swiss cheese and
the degree of characteristic sweet flavor. The results provide a guide
for the control of flavor and eye formation. The data indicate that
a definite amount of lactic acid must be produced in the cheese since
the sweet flavor comes from fermentation of lactic acid by the propionic
The Montana station has found that the addition of 0.008 percent
of citric acid to pasteurized skim milk before inoculation with culture
increased the volatile acids and flavor compounds sufficiently to improve
the flavor and quality of cheese.
Biacetyl in milk improves the flavor of cottage cheese made from it,
according to an Oregon station study. Samples with high biacetyl
content received high flavor scores although occasionally some samples
were criticized for high acid. The station also reports that in general
the soluble protein fraction of milk has an important influence on
starter activity. Paradoxically, the milk from animals on a low
carotene diet was apparently normal in protein composition but failed,
nonetheless, to properly support starter activity.
No practical method has been found for inactivating antibiotics
present in the milk of a cow recently treated for mastitis. From 60 to
80 percent of the aureomycin remained in a series of test samples
after milk was autoclaved for 10 minutes at 15 pounds pressure at
the Virginia station. This clearly shows that antibiotics, such as
aureomycin, cannot be inactivated by exposure to pasteurizing temperatures.
In experiments at the Minnesota station aureomycin added to milk
suppressed certain undesirable types of bacteria, but allowed other
equally undesirable types to multiply, thus nullifying any advantage
gained by using the antibiotic.
Cream Studies on Improving Butter
An undesirable cheesy flavor in butter can usually be traced to contamination
with Pseudomonas putrefaciens bacteria according to the
Minnesota station. Adding 1.5 percent of salt (on the basis of the
amount of skim milk present) to the churning contaminated with this
organism has tended to prevent surface taint in the resulting butter.
The excess salt is washed out in working the butter.
Neither the acidity of the cream at time of churning nor the kind
or type of commercial neutralizers commonly used to standardize acidity
content of cream has any appreciable effect on the carotene and
vitamin A content in fresh butter or in butter held in cold storage,
according to research carried on by the Montana station.
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United States. Office of Experiment Stations. Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1952, book, January 1953; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5990/m1/93/: accessed March 26, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.