Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1952 Page: 89
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DAIRY INDUSTRY 89
are now being made to learn whether this may be one of the more
important reasons why Brahman cattle are better adapted to hot
climates than European cattle. The station also found that high
humidity does not seriously influence milk production until the temperature
reaches 80. Increasing the temperature from 60 to 100
reduced the thyroid activity of dairy cattle (another problem solved
with a radioactive compound-I 131).
Investigations by dairy departments at State experiment stations
include research of importance to everyone in the dairy industry.
Some of the most fundamental research now being carried on is in
the fields of dairy chemistry and dairy bacteriology. For example,
by means of a process known in physical chemistry as electrophoresis
one of the stations recently isolated a new protein found only in the
membrane of fat globules. This protein may provide the key to the
solution of the problem of oxidized milk. Such findings are of great
importance in carrying on other research leading to advancement in
dairy manufacture and technology, the practical results of which are
New Findings on Handling Processed Milk
One of the most critical steps involved in the processing of whole
milk powder is homogenization. Efficiently homogenized milk used
in the production of whole milk powder will reconstitute much more
readily than milk less efficiently homogenized. The Washington station
found that low fat milk will homogenize more efficiently than
high fat milk and that the reconstituted product will give maximum
wettability values. Fourteen-percent butterfat milk powder will keep
better than whole milk powder and is more desirable for beverage
purposes than nonfat milk powder. The Wisconsin station established
the fact that moderate-size dry milk particles (around 26.3
microns in diameter) are more soluble than either finer or coarser
fractions. The Indiana station succeeded in increasing the solubility
of milk at least twentyfold by adding certain surface-active agents
before the milk was dried. According to the Minnesota station the
flavor and keeping quality characteristics of freeze-dried milk are
essentially the same as for spray-dried whole milk powder. Both
became tallowy during storage.
The Minnesota and Pennsylvania stations learned that beta- lactoglobulin
is the main source of sulfhydryl groups in milk and that this
protein is primarily responsible for the cooked flavor in milk. The
Minnesota station emphasizes that the sulfhydryl groups are not responsible
for the poor baking quality of improperly dried milk. At
the Missouri station evaporated milk was allowed to age for various
periods and under various temperatures in electrolytic and hot-dipped
plated cans. After a 50-day storage period the amount of tin dissolved
in the milk has increased from 50 to 79 parts per million when the
temperature was increased from about 75 to 98.6 F. After a 340day
storage period the tin content of the milk had increased from 115
to 210 parts per million. Evaporated milk as received contained
about 20 parts per million of tin. The milk gradually became darker
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United States. Office of Experiment Stations. Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1952, book, January 1953; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5990/m1/91/: accessed January 24, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.