Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1952 Page: 84
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84 REPORT ON EXPERIMENT STATIONS, 1952
are several days old, although some spots disappear with age of the
egg, particularly at relatively high temperatures.
The Missouri station has determined that it is possible to bring to
the consumer an AA quality egg if the air cell is not used as a criterion
of quality. Of the eggs broken out during July and August, 1951,
70.9 percent scored A quality or better. It is evident that the air cell
size has little importance in the grade determination of the edible egg.
The number of dairy cows in the United States has remained almost
constant for over a quarter of a century in spite of the increased awareness
of our people of the importance of dairy cattle in converting grass,
hay, and silage into nutritious dairy products. Low labor returns and
long hours with little opportunity for relaxation have made dairying
less attractive than other fields of agriculture. Only through increased
production per cow, therefore, has the demand for dairy products been
satisfied. With a rapidly increasing population and the growing need
for milk, the development of methods by which dairy cattle producers
may save time, reduce costs, and improve quality is needed in order to
insure enough milk for everyone's needs. Following are representative
examples of the type of research now being carried on at State
experiment stations with a view to making dairying more attractive
to the farmer.
Dairy herd records for a period covering 44 years summarized by the
Nebraska station show that despite every effort made to do a good job
of rearing young calves, 12.14 percent died from disease before they
were 3 months old, 1.71 percent died between the ages of 4 and 6 months,
inclusive, and 0.92 percent died between the ages of 7 and 23 months.
These data will prove useful in comparing modern methods of management
with earlier practices.
Wisconsin has tried to evaluate various environmental factors on
milk production, such as condition at time of calving, length of dry
period, efficiency of feed utilization, nutritive ratio of the ration (proportion
of digestible protein to digestible nonnitrogenous nutrients),
etc. Although the procedures are too involved for a farmer to use in
attempting to "correct" a record for these factors, they give the scientist
a basis on which to formulate practical recommendations the farmer
The function of vitamin B12 and aureomycin in calf nutrition is still
unsettled, although aureomycin has proved valuable in controlling
scours. Experimental calves at the Arkansas, Kansas, Iowa, Pennsylvania,
Oklahoma, Louisiana, and other stations seemed to grow faster
when fed aureomycin. The New York (Cornell) station reports that
calves fed antibiotics required about 9 percent less feed per unit of
gain than calves receiving no antibiotic. However, when the use of
aureomycin was discontinued the calves at the Oklahoma station
dropped below normal in rate of growth. The Minnesota, Michigan,
and Kansas stations showed that aureomycin is a definite handicap to
calves after the rumen has begun to function (characteristic bacterial
flora is well established) particularly with respect to the digestion of
roughage (the crude fiber portion).
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United States. Office of Experiment Stations. Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1952, book, January 1953; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5990/m1/86/: accessed March 26, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.