Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1952 Page: 83
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POULTRY RESEARCH 83
The Vermont station, after 4 years of trials, showed that each acre
of pullet range saved about 1,150 pounds of purchased feed annually.
With 500 birds per acre the range-reared pullets ate an average of
29.8 pounds of feed whereas the confinement-reared chickens ate 32.1
pounds. The difference of 2.3 pounds represents a saving in purchased
feed of 7.2 percent, which more than offsets the costs of range
shelters, water piping, and the moving of the birds to and from range.
Range-reared pullets were more uniform, had firmer muscling and
carried a deeper pigmentation than confined pullets. Fewer of the
birds that had been on range had to be culled at housing time, but the
nonculled birds in both groups-those on range and those confinedwere
similar in weight, egg production, and rate of survival. Ladino
clover was superior to bluegrass-orchardgrass mixture for late summer
pasture in three respects: (1) It yielded considerably more, (2) it
was eaten more readily by the birds, and (3) it was capable of carrying
a larger number of birds per acre.
The amount of palatable forage that should be available for grazing
was found by the Pennsylvania station to differ according to the kinds
of birds being grazed and the season of the year. Expressed in terms
of dry matter per acre, production of forage ranged from a high of
952 pounds in late July to a low of 28 pounds in mid-September, after
a prolonged drought. The total amount of forage available as dry
matter on each acre for turkey grazing during the 1951 season was as
follows for each grass: Orchard-2,597 pounds, Kentucky bluegrass2,072
pounds, reed canary-1,898 pounds, and brome-1,594 pounds.
The results confirm the findings of six previous years, namely, that
approximately twice as many pounds of turkey were produced where
pastures were heavily grazed as where they were lightly grazed. On
the same orchard grass pasture area 150 turkeys per acre were grown
successfully for seven successive years.
High energy rations for breeders
The use of high energy rations for breeder pullets may lower production
costs and increase profits, as it has done in broiler rations,
according to research at the New Hampshire station. Five rations
varying in energy content above 820 calories and up to 977 calories
per pound increased egg production from 9.1 to 21.27 percent, and improved
feed efficiency from 6.02 to 6.68 pounds per dozen eggs, as compared
with the 1949 New England College Conference high-fiber lowenergy
breeding ration of 820 calories, on which the feed efficiency was
7.07 pounds of feed per dozen eggs. Rations near the midpoint of the
energy range gave better results than the highest or lowest energy
Egg Quality Investigations
Egg position during cooling and holding has a greater bearing on
the candled quality of eggs than the type of container, according to
the Michigan station. Albumin quality is not closely correlated with
candled quality. Eggs held in a wire basket maintained the best albumin
quality but were next to the lowest in candled quality. Leghorn
eggs contained fewer spots than did the brown-shelled eggs from
American breeds. Detection of spots is more readily made after eggs
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United States. Office of Experiment Stations. Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1952, book, January 1953; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5990/m1/85/: accessed December 16, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.