Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1952 Page: 82
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82 REPORT ON EXPERIMENT STATIONS, 1952
Several unidentified growth factors under investigation
Previous investigations at the Maryland station have shown that at
least two unidentified growth factors are involved in the nutritive
requirements of poultry. One of these factors is present in liver and
certain other products, whereas the other is found in dried whey
products. Several concentrated fractions of the liver factor have
been prepared, one of which had 350 to 400 times the potency of the
original liver product (Biopar C). Growth curves of chicks fed the
fractions indicated that there are either two forms of the same unidentified
growth factor, or two different factors, one of which is
present in two forms with slightly different solubility properties.
Poults fed a soybean meal-corn ration fortified with all known nutrients
responded to crude supplements, including Biopar C, liver L,
fish meal, dried whey products, butyl molasses solubles, butyl grain
solubles, and dried brewers' yeast. Although all these products were
effective in stimulating growth, only certain ones prevented an enlarged
hock disorder, indicating that different factors are involved.
The Iowa station found that supplementing a soybean protein basal
diet for chicks with either crude corn oil, refined corn oil, soybean oil,
wheat-germ oil, oleic acid concentrate, or linoleic acid concentrate
stimulated chick growth as much as 30 percent. The oleic acid concentrate
was superior to other oils in promoting growth. The chick
has a dietary requirement for either specific fatty acids, or for an unknown
vitamin or vitamins present in vegetable oils, or both.
Niacin corrects leg disorders in ducks and turkeys
Pekin ducklings kept on wire-mesh floors and fed practical rations
at the New York (Cornell) station showed a severe bowing of the
legs. Fish-liver oil wasnot necessary to produce a high incidence of
the disorder. The condition appears to be caused by a niacin deficiency,
and was entirely prevented either by feeding 5.0 to 7.5 percent
of dried brewers' yeast or adding 20 grams of synthetic niacin per
pound of ration.
The Cornell station also found that the omission of the supplementary
niacin from the basal diet previously used in the studies of
enlarged hock disorder in turkeys resulted in a marked increase in
the incidence and severity of enlarged hocks in poults. The addition
of 5 percent dried brewers' yeast to a ration to which no niacin had
been added failed to prevent the disorder completely, but the addition
of 20 grams of niacin per ton of diet with the 5-percent yeast, gave
complete protection. At least one unidentified factor is needed in
addition to niacin to prevent enlarged hocks.
Grassland economizes on feed
Previous experiments at the Michigan station revealed that the
feed consumption of pullets on Ladino clover pasture is 10 percent
lower than that of pullets on bare ground. Present research indicates
that an additional 10 percent can be saved where pullets are allowed
on pasture, and that an over-all saving of 20 percent of other feed is
possible. Assuming that the carrying capacity of 1 acre of good pasture
is 400 pullets, it is estimated that savings on the feed bill of an
acre of poultry pasture is worth $53.
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United States. Office of Experiment Stations. Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1952, book, January 1953; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5990/m1/84/: accessed March 17, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.