Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1952 Page: 81
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POULTRY RESEARCH 81
25 percent of the sugar crystals processed from cane juice. When this
material was substituted by the Hawaii station for one-half, threefourths,
and all of the cereal grains in the ration of laying pullets,
optimum survival, feed consumption, body weight, egg production,
egg size, and egg hatchability resulted. Thus, in areas of the world
where cereal grains are either not grown or are unavailable, as in
Hawaii during prolonged shipping strikes, low-grade sugar may
serve successfully as an emergency source of carbohydrates.
In two experiments conducted by the Arkansas station, the substitution
of corn molasses (Hydrol) for 10 pounds of corn (drymatter
basis) in 100 pounds of chick diet, increased the rate of growth
significantly. It also increased the efficiency of feed utilization 0.2
pound of feed per pound of gain. There is evidence that corn molasses
contains an unidentified growth factor for growing chicks.
A byproduct of desugared beet molasses, obtained in the manufacture
of monosodium glutamate and glutamic acid, was found by the
Colorado station to be an effective source of methyl groups in chick
starting mashes low in choline. Feeding this product at different
levels in the ration consistently improved the rate of growth of the
Recent findings about antibiotics in rations
According to the Pennsylvania station the growth rates of chickens
and turkeys can be increased to 10 percent by the inclusion of 5 grams
of aureomycin or terramycin per ton of starter mash. The advantage
gained by the addition of one of these antibiotics to the turkey starter
mash can be maintained only by adding it also to the grower mash.
When the antibiotic was added as a supplement to the feed until the
poults were 28 weeks of age the body weight of turkeys increased
significantly. Most of the increase occurred in the males, but the
hens were significantly more uniform in weight than the toms. Removal
of the antibiotic when birds were 8 weeks of age decreased the
rate of growth and increased the variability of growth from the
twelfth to the twenty-eighth week.
At the Texas station penicillin, bacitracin, and sodium arsanilate
have been shown to increase chick and poult growth. Growth increases
that can be attributed to the antibiotics, ranged from 10 to 25 percent.
In addition to increasing growth, antibiotics have been found to improve
feathering in poultry, to make the flocks more uniform, and
definitely to improve feed efficiency. Egg production and hatchability
have been shown to increase 5 to 8 percent when antibiotics were fed
to laying stock.
Recent research at the California station has produced a possible
explanation of the growth-promoting effect of antibiotics on poultry.
It may be that the drugs inhibit a normal gut microflora that stores
up in its own body growth factors from the feed and thus deprives
the chicken of an adequate supply of nutrients. At the same time it
appears that indiscriminate use of antibiotics in poultry feeding could
change the gut microflora to such an extent that drug-resistant pathogenic
forms become predominant and thus result in hazards to both
the birds and human beings.
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United States. Office of Experiment Stations. Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1952, book, January 1953; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5990/m1/83/: accessed March 29, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.