Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1952 Page: 31
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IMPROVEMENT IN FRUIT PRODUCTION 31
The Vermont station, in a test in which Ladino clover was used for
poultry range, found that each acre of pullet range saved about 1,150
pounds of purchased feed a year. At a capacity of 500 birds per
acre the range-reared pullets consumed 2.3 pounds less feed per bird.
This was a saving in purchased feed of 7.2 percent. This saving
more than offset the costs of range shelters, of water piping, and of
moving the birds to and from the range. It was also found that the
range-reared pullets were more uniform, had firmer muscling, and
carried a deeped pigmentation. Ladino clover was superior to bluegrass-orchard
grass range because it yielded more, was more palatable,
and was capable of a greater carrying capacity.
IMPROVEMENT IN FRUIT PRODUCTION
New developments in fruit production research are necessarily slow
because of the nature of the material with which the scientific worker
is occupied. An apple tree, for example, requires several years to
reach profitable bearing age and, because of its slow development,
cannot be profoundly modified in any single year by changes in management.
However, research results accumulated over the years have
brought about great changes in such orchard practices as soil management,
pruning, nutrition, and spray or dust protection. Better machinery
such as tractors, sprayers, and dusters in the orchard, and improved
grading and handling devices in the packing shed, have aided
in making fruit production a more business-like industry. There is
still a lot of hard manual work with fruits, especially small fruits,
that tends to limit production despite the demand for more and better
fruit. The perishable nature of fruit is obviously a handicap to complete
mechanization of the industry.
Ruby, a new apple so named because of its brilliant red color, was
announced in 1952 by the Ohio station. It is a product of almost 30
years of research and trial by the station. From its parents, Gallia
Beauty and Starking, Ruby derived certain desirable characters,
such as good quality, a tendency to annual bearing, heavy productivity,
and late maturity. Ruby fruit keeps well in storage and is not as
susceptible to scald as its Gallia Beauty parent.
In search of a better McIntosh apple, the Massachusetts station
evaluated carefully seven strains of this well-known variety and reported
that the Rogers strain is the most desirable type and keeps somewhat
longer in storage than the other six strains.
Based on good performance in the station trial orchards and in
plantings of cooperating growers, five new grape seedlings were
named by the New York State Station at Geneva and then turned
over to the New York State Fruit Testing Association for propagation
and distribution. Of the five new grapes, Himrod and Romulus are
white, early, and seedless. Alden is a reddish-black grape with large
oval berries, meaty in texture, and sweet and vinous in flavor. Bath,
black in color, juicy, sweet and free from foxiness in flavor, is highly
productive. Naples, of a color and flavor similar to the well-known
Delaware, is superior to that variety in size of cluster and berries, and
is less subject to cracking of fruit upon reaching maturity.
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United States. Office of Experiment Stations. Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1952, book, January 1953; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5990/m1/33/: accessed September 21, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.