Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1952 Page: 25
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FIELD CROP RESEARCH 25
have higher carotene contents when yields per acre have been increased
by the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers. The addition
of potassium resulted in yield increases but did not affect carotene
content. Increases in carotene content have accompanied increases in
pH where calcium carbonate was applied to acid soils (pH 4.5). The
liming effect of the calcium carbonate, also, increased yields. Boron
has increased yields but not carotene content. Neither increased yield
nor increased carotene content have resulted from the use of copper,
magnesium, or manganese.
The Colorado station (coop. USDA), reports that storage rot can
be reduced by breeding resistance into present varieties. Beets grown
from seed of 16 of 19 mother beets that showed resistance to storage
rot were more resistant than were beets of the unselected parent US
226, 6 were lower in rot losses, and none of the progeny of the 19 strains
sustained higher rot losses than beets from the unselected parent.
About 46,000 acres of sugar beets in Colorado were thinned mechanically
in 1951, as a result of methods worked out by the Colorado
station. Mechanically thinned beets have given a higher tonnage
yield per acre, have produced a higher gross sugar content per acre,
and have been higher in percentage of sugar than hand-blocked and
thinned beets included in the experiments. The hand labor on mechanically
thinned areas has ranged from 27 to 64 percent of that
needed for complete hand work.
Chemical weed control has facilitated the mechanical production of
sugar beets. Michigan station experiments (coop. USDA) showed
that the application of common salt reduces labor costs in thinning
beets. The findings suggest that with the aid of salt sprays mechanical
blocking and thinning may replace thinning and early weeding
by hand. Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) applied to sugar beets by the
North Dakota and Michigan stations (coop. USDA), at the rate of
5 to 10 pounds per acre just before the beets emerge, was particularly
effective in killing green and yellow foxtail, Setaria spp., the predominant
weedy grass of northern sugar beet areas. When this treatment
is used under normal rainfall conditions, foxtail may largely be
eliminated without any decrease in yield of sugar beets. Ryegrass
and chickweed have been controlled in sugar-beet-seed fields through
the use of isopropyl-N-phenyl carbamate (I. P. C.) sprays by the
Oregon station (coop. USDA). This practice has been accepted by
seed growers in Oregon.
Oxford 1-181, a new black-shank-resistant flue-cured tobacco variety
developed by the South Carolina station and the Department
equals or surpasses, under South Carolina conditions, any available
black-shank-resistant variety. Yields, quality, and returns per acre
of Oxford 1-181 have been comparable to the better flue-cured varieties
on non-black-shank-infested soils. Oxford 1-181, a selection from
the same cross as Oxford 1, has characteristics resembling Virginia
Bright Leaf, Jamaica, Bonanza, and Yellow Mammoth, and should
not be fertilized too heavily with nitrogen, as this treatment may
produce a thick leafy-type tobacco not in demand.
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United States. Office of Experiment Stations. Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1952, book, January 1953; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5990/m1/27/: accessed July 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.