Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1952 Page: 21
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FIELD CROP RESEARCH 21
Arkwin oats, a winter variety developed by the Arkansas station,
has shown exceptional winter hardiness and provides good winter
pasture. Also characterized by large foliage, upright growth habit,
and medium tall plants facilitating combining, it has outyielded the
more common Traveler, DeSoto, Ferguson, Fulgrain, and Red Rustproof
varieties. Arkwin is resistant to common races of smut, Helminthosporium
blight, red spot mosaic, older races of crown rust, and
is moderately resistant to race 45.
Darset, a dwarf, combine-type darso developed by the Oklahoma
station (coop. USDA), will extend grain sorghum production eastward
into areas where bird damage and weathering reduce yields of
existing noncombine types requiring hand harvesting. Darset, essentially
Okla. No. 1 darso with addition of the dwarf plant character,
is suitable for combine harvesting, and is a week to 10 days earlier.
Both varieties are resistant to Periconia stalk rot (pythium rot or
milo disease) and remain standing under conditions in which regular
darso lodges. Dwarf Kafir 44-14 and Redlan, previously released,
are providing improved yield and greater disease and insect resistance
for central and western Oklahoma. Both outyielded leading combine
milo varieties in trials at Woodward in 1951.
Different cotton varieties were grown by the Mississippi station
(coop. USDA) under the best known mechanical practices of production,
harvesting, and processing to determine picking efficiency (ratio
of seed cotton harvested by machine to cotton open and pickable) and
cleanability (reaction to cleaning and ginning after machine picking).
Di1ferences in picking efficiency of different varieties of cotton
between tests and between the years can be caused by the degree of
efficiency obtained in operating mechanical equipment, the degree of
maturity of the cotton, the degree of defoliation, and other factors.
No variety consistently surpasses all other varieties in picking efficiency.
Lowest efficiency is shown in Miller, a short, coarse variety.
In this variety there is an excessive falling out of locks even under normal
conditions. Picker efficiency usually rises in varieties that give
higher yields of seed cotton and drops in varieties with reduced yields.
The composite grades or cleanability of the several varieties vary between
tests and from year to year. Miller has been slightly higher in
grade in tests where planted. Wilds, a li/4-inch-staple variety, has
equaled most other varieties in picking efficiency and grade.
Cotton yields have been increased 59 percent over 25 years by the
Texas station (coop. USDA) and runoff and erosion minimized by
contouring and terracing relatively level cotton land. Tests have
also shown that cotton yields can be predicted with reasonable accuracy
if the depth of soil moisture is known at planting time. With
soil moisture less than 1 foot deep, lint yields have averaged 44 pounds
per acre; 2 feet deep 110 pounds; 3 feet deep 170 pounds; and4 feet
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United States. Office of Experiment Stations. Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1952, book, January 1953; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5990/m1/23/: accessed January 22, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.