Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1952 Page: 20
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20 REPORT ON EXPERIMENT STATIONS, 1952
Seven of these were also resistant to hessian fly and several showed
resistance to stem and leaf rusts. Current cultural methods of control
are often ineffective, and unless practiced on a wide scale are of
little value, because adult wheat jointworms (small flies) may
drift in from other uncontrolled fields.
Time element important in seedbed preparation
According to 11 years' research at the Nebraska station, there is a
big difference in yields between winter wheat planted under different
methods and at different times. Fields plowed 7-inches deep on July
15, and disked on August 15 and again just prior to seeding, gave an
average yield of 33.9 bushels per acre. When August disking was
omitted, the yield was 6.7 bushels lower. Wheatland plowed 7 inches
deep on August 15 after being disked July 15 and again just prior
to seeding, gave an average yield of 31 bushels. Omitting the July
disking lowered the yield about 1.5 bushels. With no supplementary
tillage to control weeds, plowing on August 15 gave better results
than either earlier or later plowing. Later plowing with various
diskings resulted in still lower yields. Plowing depth has far less effect
than plowing date on the yield. A slight yield increase might be
expected as soil is plowed deeper (7 inches) during July and August.
With late September plowing a 4-inch depth was enough for maximum
profit. No benefit resulted from plowing to a depth of 10 inches.
Kenbar, a new winter barley developed by the Kentucky station
(coop. USDA), has outyielded commercial varieties by 4 to 18 bushels
per acre. Kenbar is resistant to five of the seven known races of
4nuda" loose smut, which often causes up to 20-percent reduction in
yield of commonly grown varieties, and also to barley scald and
mildew. Winter-hardiness, short, strong straw, and early maturity
are among its other advantages. It has produced 3,042 pounds of
grain per acre at the Mississippi station, equivalent by weight to 95
bushels of oats, and has resisted lodging. Hudson, a winter variety
developed by the New York (Cornell) station, has outyielded Wong,
widely grown in New York, by an average of 13.9 bushels per acre, or
34 percent in 5 years and has also been more winter hardy.
Goliad, a new disease-resistant barley, was developed for winter
forage under south Texas growing conditions by the Texas station
(coop. USDA). It also produces good grain yields when the top
growth is not injured severely by late winter freezes. It is resistant
to the common races of leaf rust, stem rust, and powdery mildew and
to spot blotch and net blotch. Goliad has tall, strong straw, and an
erect, spring-type growth habit and, when planted early in the fall,
makes more fall and early-winter growth than winter-type varieties.
Kearney barley, selected by the Nebraska station (coop. USDA),
is recommended for an early-maturing grain crop and for fall and
winter pasture. It is more winter hardy than Reno and Ward, both
older varieties. Dicktoo, a high-yielding, winter barley developed by
the North Dakota station (coop. USDA), matures early and like
Kearney is much more winter hardy than Reno.
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United States. Office of Experiment Stations. Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1952, book, January 1953; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5990/m1/22/: accessed July 25, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.