Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1952 Page: 19
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FIELD CROP RESEARCH 19
weeds as well as the sweep cultivator. Sweeps and disk-hillers give
best weed control when used for late cultivations, and such cultivations
may be aided by a postemergence application of herbicide.
Preemergence application has been most effective as 1 to 2 pounds
per acre of 2,4-D acid equivalent (preferably ester forms) in 5 to 10
gallons of water, at or soon after planting. Although preemergence
treatment may result in excellent weed control with two instead of the
usual three cultivations, under some conditions it may damage crops
and fail to control weeds. Best results with postemergence spraying,
mostly to control susceptible broadleaf weeds, have been obtained
with 0.5 pound of acid equivalent of the sodium or amine salt of 2,4-D
or 0.25 pound of the ester in 10 to 15 gallons of water. Proper equipment
for the task is essential and certain precautions are to be observed.
It is important, also to use weed-free seed, clean harvest equipment,
and weed-free hay and bedding material.
Additional varieties of wheat developed by the experiment stations
and the Department, and expected to help maintain the current high
level of national production, possess such characters as stiff straw and
resistance to shattering and bleaching when left in the field, which
facilitate harvesting them mechanically. They make high yields,
mature early, are winter hardy and resistant to diseases and insects,
and have desirable milling and baking qualities.
New wheat varieties
Ponca, a new hard red winter wheat variety developed by the
Oklahoma and Kansas stations (coop. USDA), resembles Pawnee
but is much superior to Pawnee in resistance to hessian fly and leaf
rust. The grain of Ponca does not bleach as readily or sprout in the
head or shatter as much as Pawnee does if left standing in the field,
and it also is superior in milling and baking properties. Ponca is
recommended for Oklahoma southeast of the Panhandle and several
nearby counties. Apache, a new hard red winter wheat developed
by the Kansas, New Mexico, and Oklahoma stations (coop. USDA),
is recommended for northeastern New Mexico and adjoining parts of
Colorado and Oklahoma. Intermediate between Early Blackhull and
Comanche in maturity, Apache has good test weight and good milling
and baking qualities, but is not resistant to rusts or smuts.
Sioux, a new hard red winter wheat developed by the Nebraska
station (coop. USDA), has excellent bunt resistance, is winter hardy,
and has strong straw, and good milling and baking qualities. Sioux
is recommended for central and western Nebraska, where it equals
Cheyenne and Nebred in yields. Anderson, a high-yielding intermediate
variety, resistant to leaf rust, moderately resistant to mildew,
was developed by the South Carolina and North Carolina stations
(coop. USDA) from a Leapland-Fronteira cross.
New strains of wheat resistant to the destructive wheat jointworm,
bred in research by the Missouri and Kansas stations (coop. UDSA),
are providing resistant parent stock for use in developing good quality,
high-yielding varieties. Twenty-four strains derived from a cross
between wheat and wheatgrass proved resistant to wheat jointworm.
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United States. Office of Experiment Stations. Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1952, book, January 1953; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5990/m1/21/: accessed August 17, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.