Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1953 Page: 92
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92 REPORT ON EXPERIMENT STATIONS, 1953
was established between yield and available magnesium, calcium, and
potassium in the soil. These did not vary greatly in the several vineyards
under study. Soil acidity was about pH 6.3 in the more productive
and about 4.6 in the low productive vineyards.
Ohio experiments indicate that the beneficial effects that may accrue
to apple trees from foliar sprays of a nitrogenous material, such as
urea, may be closely related to the nitrogen status of the trees. Increased
yields resulted from the application of foliage sprays to
Jonathan apple trees which had received no nitrogen the preceding
year, but when the spray was applied to trees to which urea had been
applied the preceding year, actual reductions in yield were recorded.
Studies by the West Virginia station showed that the terminal
growth of apple trees was benefited to little or no extent as a result
of foliar sprays of nitrogen. Variation in yields both within and
between treatments were such as to permit no deductions with respect
to their effect on yield. Some evidence of foliage injury was seen on
certain of thie nitrogen-sprayed trees.
Based on long-continued studies in peach orchards in different parts
of the State, certain practical suggestions were presented by the Arkansas
station for reducing losses from winter injury. Culture and
fertilization should be such as to favor rapid early growth; later it
should be sufficient to maintain the trees in full foliage throughout
the summer and fall. Heavy crops should be thinned to reduce the
drain on the trees. Late fall applications of nitrogen should be
avoided, including application of nitrogen to legume cover crops.
Such a program is said to increase the carbohydrate accumulation in
the tree, which in turn influences greatly the intensity of the rest
period and resistance of both wood and buds to winter injury.
As reported by the Ohio station the mulching of red raspberries is
a desirable cultural practice. Both total yield and size of individual
berries were materially increased in the mulched plots. Nitrogen,
used alone, had no effect on berry size or upon cane development. An
average of 2-year-records indicates that mulching may increase acre
yields by 500 to 600 pints, or about 12 to 15 percent.
BETTER FARM FORESTS
The present high price of lumber and lumber products has made
the American farmer conscious of the potential value of his woodlands
and more interested in their efficient management and utilization. Increased
emphasis on these phases of forestry research is reported by
Fire control and prevention of insect and plant disease damage are
also becoming increasingly important as woodland values rise.
Studies of growth in spaced pine plantings, led the Georgia station
to conclude that in general the closer plantings such as 4 x 4 feet,
yielded the largest total cubic foot volume per acre. By contrast wide
spacings such as 12 x 12 feet produced the smallest total cubic feet.
Spacings of 6 x 6, 6 x 8, and 8 x 8 feet, respectively, for loblolly, slash,
and shortleaf pines appeared most desirable in order to obtain the
largest total merchantable volume per acre.
Microdendrometer measurements by the Illinois station of the diameter
growth of shortleaf pine and white oak trees, showed that there is
considerable fluctuation in both species when the soil moisture situa
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United States. Office of Experiment Stations. Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1953, book, 1953; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5989/m1/94/: accessed August 18, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.