Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1953 Page: 91
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FRUIT PRODUCTION RESEARCH 91
Eden, a new strawberry originated by the New York State station
from a cross of Dresden X Fairfax is described as particularly desirable
for freezing, canning, and preserving, and as having flavor
a little too tart for fresh dessert use.
A new walnut of the Persian or English type was introduced by
the Illinois station in 1952 under the name of Colby. It was grown
from an open-pollinated seed of Crath 10. This variety has two good
qualities: It matures early and shells are thin and contain well-filled
kernels of good flavor.
Various State stations and the U. S. Department of Agriculture
are concerned with the failure or poor growth of peach trees when
planted on sites from which old peach trees have been removed.
Among State stations that are studying this problem are California,
Georgia, North Carolina, and New Jersey, all important peach-producing
What may be a very important development in the replant problem
is the discovery and identification by the Georgia station of a fungus,
Clitocybe tabescens, which was found in many peach-growing areas
of Georgia and South Carolina. Because of the presence of this root
rot on the roots of dead and dying peach trees in many different
orchards where second and third plantings of peaches had been made
on old orchard sites, it is believed that the organism is the primary
cause of severe losses in many such situations. No apparent relationship
could be established between nutrition or toxicities and the loss
of trees, nor could any difference in susceptibility be noted whether
the trees were budded on Shalil, Yunnan, or Tennessee Natural rootstocks.
A practical suggestion was to avoid planting peach trees
on old peach sites or on newly cleared forest land.
A different approach is being made to the peach replant problem
at the California station where the soil has been treated with different
chemicals, such as carbon bisulphide and DD, prior to replanting
peach trees. In the early stages, no significant difference has been
observed in the growth of replants on the various plots. There is
a definite possibility that there are different causes for the failure of
replanted peach trees in different parts of the country.
In New Jersey where the establishment of peach orchards on sites
from which old peach trees have been removed is often difficult, especially
on the more sandy soils, some evidence was obtained that soil
fumigation may be helpful. It was concluded that a reduction in
nematode population may help. In an orchard near Vineland, where
22 percent of the newly planted peach trees failed to survive the first
growing season on the untreated plots, all trees that received soil
fumigation and corncob mulch survived. Benefit may have resulted
from the corncob mulch because of improved soil moisture conditions.
Productivity of vineyards was found by the Missouri station to be
correlated with the quantity of available phosphorus in the top 6 inches
of soil. Vineyards on soil with a content of 200 pounds or more of
available phosphorus yielded 6 to 7 tons of grapes per acre. Yields
decreased with lessened amounts of available phosphorus in the soil.
Where the phosphorus level reached 10 pounds or less, yields were
usually less than 1% tons of fruit per acre. No definite relationship
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United States. Office of Experiment Stations. Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1953, book, 1953; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5989/m1/93/: accessed November 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.