Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1953 Page: 86
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86 REPORT ON EXPERIMENT STATIONS, 1953
ing for the Northern States, since it matures in 90 days. It has been
announced by the Rhode Island station as a variety that weighs 8 to
15 pounds, is slightly elongated and striped, and has a firm rind and
flesh that is of high quality and a clear red color.
Culture of Vegetable Crops
Ways and means of securing more efficient production of vegetable
crops are being constantly sought in State experiment station research.
Supplemental irrigation is one phase that is currently being
given much attention. This is true even in States where the average
annual rainfall is usually considered adequate to mature vegetable
crops successfully. Experiments at the Mississippi station have shown
that irrigation pays in two ways with vegetable crops: (1) It insures
early planting and maturing at the optimum time for marketing,
and (2) it carries crops through damaging periods of temporary
drought. Crop response, costs, and returns have been included in the
study at the Mississippi station for a number of vegetables, including
tomatoes, sweetpotatoes, bush snap beans, sweet corn, and others particularly
suited for fall growing.
At the Utah station the results of a study of the relationship of
irrigation and fertilizers to yields of sweet corn have been reported.
Increasing amounts of both moisture and nitrogen hastened maturity
and increased the yield of stover and ears as well as the size and
number of ears. It was also found that sweet corn did not remove
measurable amounts of soil moisture below the 36-inch depth.
The Florida station which is continuing its research with the irrigation
of vegetables, found that the yield of marketable grades of
tomatoes was significantly increased by the use of irrigation. Two
side dressings of nitrate of soda at 200 pounds per acre did not increase
the yield of marketable fruit; and watermelons did not give increased
yields when grown under irrigation or when given a side dressing of
nitrogen. This result was obtained during a season when over 14
inches of rainfall were recorded during the growing season.
Supplemental irrigation studies at the Missouri station with various
vegetables demonstrate that, in a year of adverse rainfall in southeastern
Missouri, yields can be greatly increased by irrigation. Spectacular
increases over the check plots were realized for irrigated
beans, cucumbers, and sweetpotatoes, which could spell the difference
between crop success and failure in dry seasons.
The Arkansas station has found that, by applying 1 acre-inch of
water every week to a fall planting of snap beans, the yield was
increased 80 bushels per acre over beans not irrigated.
The optimum spacing for vegetable crops is another phase of current
research that is pointing the way to a more efficient agriculture. The
Rhode Island station has completed a, study on the interrelation of
plant spacing, rate of fertilization, and variety, on the yield and ear
size of sweet corn. The California station reports that maximum
yields of green lima beans for freezing are obtained when the plants
are spaced about 4 inches apart.
The New York State station has shown graphically that 14,500
plants of sweet corn per acre is the most desirable stand of the largergrowing
sweet corn varieties used for processing. To secure the
optumum yield this station recommends that corn be planted on a
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United States. Office of Experiment Stations. Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1953, book, 1953; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5989/m1/88/: accessed March 24, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.