Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1953 Page: 78
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78 REPORT ON EXPERIMENT STATIONS, 195 a
and from 533 to 720 pounds without. Irrigation had slight effect on
lint percentage and staple lengths but reduced the number of bolls
needed for a pound of lint by about 9 percent. The moderately vigorous
cotton varieties currently being grown appeared best for this
type of irrigation.
Flax plant fat content increased by soil nitrogen
The possibility of increasing the fat content of the vegetative parts
of plants was shown by the Arizona station. In greehouse-grown flax
the yield of fat in the shoot (excluding seeds) could be raised from
1.5 to 6 percent on a dry-weight basis by growing the plants at high
or low levels of nitrogen and then changing to very low soil nitrogen.
Seed fat yield was also increased slightly by this method. Time of
flower formation was not affected, but the number of seeds per plant
was affected greatly by changes of soil nitrogen. In some cases the
greater yield of fat was offset by fewer seeds.
Soybeans vs. corn at different fertility levels
At intermediate soil productivity levels, at which corn yields of
between 50 and 80 bushels per acre are obtained, experiments of the
Iowa and other stations indicate that the yields of soybeans can probably
be increased as much as the yields of corn, percentagewise, by
improving fertility through lime, fertilizer, and manure in the rotation.
At very low productivity levels soybeans usually have an advantage
in relative yields over corn; even under these conditions
profitable soybean production cannot be anticipated. At very high
soil-fertility levels corn may have a relative advantage over soybeans-especially
if the soil responds to increasing amounts of nitrogen
and other soil factors are at optimum.
Defoliation of soybeans
In Illinois station experiments early applications of defoliants,
until approximately 40 percent of the soybean leaves have turned
yellow have resulted in the ripening of the crop a few days earlier;
but also have resulted in severe losses of yield. These effects have not
been evident with later applications. The ripening and harvesting
of weed-free soybeans could not be sped up materially without substantial
reductions in yield. Defoliants have dried up green growing
weeds in mature soybeans and greatly hastened harvest, but evidently
do not have a place in speeding up maturity in weed-free fields.
Rancidity in Spanish peanuts and its elimination
Spanish peanuts tend to become rancid faster after processing than
Virginia or runner types, according to Georgia station studies. Oxidative
rancidity, evident in the oil of this type soon after roasting
for either salted nuts or peanut butter, is associated with a slightly
different percentage of component unsaturated fatty acids in the oil
of Spanish-type nuts. Since Spanish-type nuts possess a number of
desirable characteristics and are very popular, efforts are being made
to select Spanish strains in which oil composition approaches that
of Virginia and runner types.
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United States. Office of Experiment Stations. Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1953, book, 1953; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5989/m1/80/: accessed January 16, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.