Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1953 Page: 64
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64 REPORT ON EXPERIMENT STATIONS, 1953
affect the process of photosynthesis. Molybdenum-deficient algae
were found to have, per unit of dry weight, a lower rate of photosynthesis
and a higher rate of respiration, than normal cells. The
use of algae for such studies offers the advantages of ease of manipulation,
economy of time, and in having physiologically reproducible
experimental material readily available.
FORAGE CROPS, PASTURES, AND RANGES
Well-balanced rations are necessary to insure good animal nutrition
and health. Roughage and forage crops have been receiving
greater attention as sources of vitamins and minerals and also as
economical and efficient carriers of major nutrients. Good management
practices are essential in producing such crops. Improved
varieties should be used, adequate fertilization should be provided,
efficient harvesting and preservation measures should be followed, and
improved methods of utilization should be developed. Much of the
progress in livestock production in recent years has been brought about
by growing improved forage crops, pastures, and ranges. Research
along these lines, carried on by State agricultural experiment stations,
much of it in cooperation with the U. S. Department of Agriculture,
has resulted in efficient production of meat and milk, increased the
carrying capacity of cropland, increased soil fertility, and improved
soil conditions on many farms.
Feed Processing and Preservation
With the advent of grass and legume silage much research was
needed on methods of producing feeds high in nutritive value, ways to
prevent waste and spoilage, and ways to improve the palatability of
preserved forage crops. At the same time better methods of producing
a higher quality dry hay have been devised and haymaking procedures
have been improved through proper harvesting, the use of more
efficent machinery, and the speeding up of the curing process with hay
driers and preservatives.
As a result of 17 years' work and the examination of hundreds of
samples of silage, the Massachusetts station reports that the use of
preservatives for grass silage depends to a large extent on the water
content of the ensiled crop. Good silage can be made without a preservative
if the water content of the grass is in the range of 60 to 70
percent. If the moisture content is above 70 percent the crop should
be wilted or a preservative or conditioner added. The best way to
condition silage is to add 150 pounds of hominy or cornmeal per ton
of green crop. Sulfur dioxide preserves nutrients very well but it is
hard to apply and silage conditioned with this preservative is not as
palatable as that conditioned with meal.
The Illinois station found that ground ear corn is superior to cornsugar
molasses as a conditioner for high-moisture alfalfa-bromegrass
silage. Less seepage occurred from the silo when this conditioner
was added, and dairy heifers consumed more dry matter and made
greater daily gains on the ground ear corn.
The Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, New Hampshire,
and Oregon stations have investigated the use of sodium bisulfite as a
silage preservative. Preliminary tests indicate that it is more eco
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United States. Office of Experiment Stations. Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1953, book, 1953; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5989/m1/66/: accessed May 27, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.