Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1953 Page: 47
The following text was automatically extracted from the image on this page using optical character recognition software:
DAIRY PRODUCTION 47
porarily tended to decrease or remain static as the numbers of protozoa
began to build up.
In studies at the Texas station Jersey calves were able to eat considerably
more cottonseed meal that is high in gossypol than Holstein
calves of the same age. The Idaho station reports that where good
quality hay is available dehydrated alfalfa in the calf meal is of doubtful
value. This was confirmed in similar research at the Illinois
Several stations have been cooperating with the Department to determine
the productive capacity of a cow by measuring the size of her
udder while she is still a calf. Although results to date are inconclusive,
results at the New York (Cornell) station indicate that both
nutrition and inheritance affect the size of the developing glands.
With natural breeding, one sire is rarely bred to more than 30
cows, and in small herds the bull frequently serves only 5 to 10 animals
a year. In 1952 the average number of cows served by one sire in an
artificial breeding association was 1,848. This means that bulls used
in artificial breeding associations have 60 to 100 times greater opportunity
of transmitting their genetic characteristics than the average
The Oregon station, studying the carotene and vitamin A requirements
of dairy animals for three generations, found that bulls usually
breed regularly during their first year of service, even on as low carotene
intakes as 50 micrograms per kilogram of body weight daily.
After 2 years of age their breeding efficiency decreased. The Louisiana
station found pasture grasses and legumes ideal feeds for dairy
bulls used in artificial breeding. Regular exercise of bulls at the Vermont
station had little influence on their sperm quality. The Minnesota
station established that at least four ejaculates can be taken from a
bull per week for an extended period of time without affecting the
quality or quantity of semen produced.
Several stations including those in Mississippi, Pennsylvania, New
Jersey, New Hampshire, and Wisconsin have further experimented
with milk as a semen diluter in place of the rather standard egg yolkcitrate
mixture. In Pennsylvania and New Hampshire boiled homogenized
whole milk or boiled pasteurized skim milk proved to be satisfactory
diluters for semen but results with reconstituted skim milk
were varied. The Mississippi station had good success with homogenized
milk but not with evaporated milk.
The use of valuable bulls would be greatly increased if semen could
be shipped long distances or held for considerable periods in a frozen
state without loss of potency. In recent years research on safe methods
of freezing semen was reported from the British Isles. The Illinois,
Arkansas, New York (Cornell), Minnesota, Nebraska, and New
Jersey stations are among the first in this country to report successful
freezing of bull semen.
The Colorado station has made a careful study of semen characteristics
most closely associated with viability and high breeding efficiency.
The fructolysis index proved to be the most accurate and
simple method for determining these characteristics. The free amino
acids in the seminal fluid, it was revealed, indicate gonadotropic activ
Here’s what’s next.
This book can be searched. Note: Results may vary based on the legibility of text within the document.
Citing and Sharing
Basic information for referencing this web page. We also provide extended guidance on usage rights, references, copying or embedding.
Reference the current page of this Book.
United States. Office of Experiment Stations. Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1953, book, 1953; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5989/m1/49/: accessed May 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.