Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1953 Page: 46
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46 REPORT ON EXPERIMENT STAtIONS, 1958
almost the same results. The calves fed aureomycin not only weighed
more than the control group, but their frames and skeletal muscles
were larger. The Vermont, Pennsylvania, and Iowa stations recommend
adding terramycin to the group of antibiotics that stimulate
growth in young calves, whereas the last two stations reported that
penicillin had no value in this respect.
The question of why antibiotics benefit some calves and not others
has not been definitely settled. The Iowa station fed aureomycin to
heifer calves from the time they were 4 days of age until they freshened.
The maximum growth stimulation occurred before the calves
were 6 months old. There was no advantage or disadvantage in
feeding antibiotics to older heifers. At levels fed by the Ohio
station aureomycin had no effect on digestion as indicated by vitamin
synthesis or pH of the rumen fluid up to 6 months of age.
The Michigan station has reported that the vitamin B12 requirement
of the dairy calf is between 20y and 40y per kilogram of dry
matter consumed. The Pennsylvania station found no advantage in
supplementing the dairy calf ration with vitamin B,2. The amount
of B32 already present in the control ration was not given. According
to the Illinois station, more evidence is desired before it can be
stated conclusively that vitamin B12 is a dietary requirement of the
The New York (Cornell) station sought to determine whether
young calves actually needed fat in their diet to survive. Even when
calves had been given colostrum for 2 days they died in 1 to 3 weeks
when placed on a solvent-extracted "fat-free" milk. Calves at the
Kentucky station grew faster when a small amount of Ethomid
C/15-16, a surfactant or detergent, was added to the ration. Iowa's
experiments with Aerosol C-61 and Louisiana's with Aerosol OS (an
anionic compound), Aerosol SE phosphate (a cationic compound),
and TEF-16 (a nonionic compound) gave negative results. The
idea in feeding detergents was that they would aid in the digestion
of the fat in the ration.
Several stations have been comparing the rate of growth of young
calves fed filled milk, in which the natural fat has been replaced with
fats other than that occuring naturally in milk, with the rate of
growth of calves fed whole or skim milk. The Minnesota station
showed that calves fed filled milk required more of the B complex
vitamins and more tocopherol, vitamin E, than calves fed whole milk.
The calves fed filled milk quickly became anemic unless a special
mineral supplement was fed. At the Illinois station, calves fed filled
milk prepared with a modified lard carefully supplemented with
minerals, vitamins, and antibiotics grew as fast as milk-fed calves.
Calves that were given fresh cud inoculations began to eat hay
earlier than calves not so inoculated at the Wyoming station, confirming
previous research at the Ohio station. Later Ohio findings
are that ruman-inoculated calves have a smoother hair coat than uninoculated
calves, but inoculations were of little or no help in controlling
diarrhea. The inoculation of young calves with the rumen
flora of cows increased the apparent digestibility of the protein in
their ration from 58.1 to 66.4 percent. At the West Virginia station
bacteria counts in inoculated calves were approximately 55 billion per
gram at 1 week of age, and increased to 103 billion per gram at 16
weeks of age. At 4 to 5 weeks of age the numbers of bacteria temrn
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United States. Office of Experiment Stations. Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1953, book, 1953; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5989/m1/48/: accessed September 20, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.