Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1953 Page: 36
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36 REPORT ON EXPERIMENT STATIONS, 1953
and E. maxima) are viable in built-up litter, as shown by the presence
of the adult parasites and coccidia in the intestinal tracts of chickens
reared on the litter. The station concluded that rearing young chicks
on the same litter that old hens have used can result in a very grave
parasite problem. Hens that have parasites are constantly contaminating
the litter with ova and oocysts so that the baby chicks placed
on this hen litter are very susceptible to both nematode parasites and
The Hawaii station found that fly larvae can ingest oocysts and
transmit coccidiosis if the larvae are eaten by chicks. The larvae
apparently are freed from oocysts during pupation, so that the newly
emerging flies are not infectious. However, adult flies can ingest
oocysts and then transmit infection for about two days, either by
being themselves ingested -or through the ingestion of their feces.
Feces from such flies have been found to produce severe coccidiosis
in chicks when collected within 24 hours after the flies were exposed
to infection. Feces collected after 24 to 48 hours produced light infection
and when collected after 48 to 72 hours produced infection
in one experiment and none in another. So it is possible for flies to
transmit severe coccidiosis to chicks if they contaminate animal feed
or water soon after they have been exposed to heavy coccidial infection.
Through a study made under poultry farm conditions to determine
to what extent houseflies may be responsible for spreading coccidiosis
and other poultry parasites, the station concluded that under ordinary
conditions coccidiosis is transmitted by flies only occasionally but
that the incidence of coccidiosis among flies may be sufficient to spread
and maintain a constant infection among native birds.
Pasture and hayland management improvement in the humid areas
has reduced animal losses from poisonous plants to negligible proportions.
Most poisonous plants are not palatable, except possibly in
their young and succulent stages, and if grazing animals are provided
with a good pasture they seldom consume such plants in sufficient
quantities to cause injurious effects.
Certain tropical legumes, principally trailing indigo are toxic to
animals. Strains of this plant vary widely in toxicity and progress
is being made in developing nontoxic strains. The Hawaii station
has developed a rapid chick-assay test for checking the toxicity of
trailing indigo and other tropical legumes. Dry meal is produced
from the plants and substituted for alfalfa meal in the chick starter
ration. If the plants are toxic, the chicks develop typical symptoms
within 21 days.
Toxic plants present a serious problem on the more arid rangelands
and frequently cause serious animal losses, especially in localized
The Arizona station has found that late fall and spring are the
two seasons when poisonous plants cause greatest losses in livestock.
If winter rains are heavier than normal there is usually an abundance
of succulent weeds that may cause bloating or poisoning from nitrates,
oxalates, and other toxic substances. If there is low rainfall grass
and weeds are in short supply and range animals tend to graze toxic
shrubs. There are few antidotes for most poisons and losses usually
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United States. Office of Experiment Stations. Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1953, book, 1953; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5989/m1/38/: accessed March 28, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.