Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1953 Page: 33
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LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION AFFECTED BY ANIMAL DISEASES 33
The station also reports that it was able to culture ,.ieep parasite
larvae and infest calves with them,' and then to transmit those parasites
back to sheep from the calves. This indicates the danger of
sheep parasites to other ruminants.
Cobalt and parasitism
A very small amount of cobalt is necessary to the health and normal
growth of cattle and sheep. The effects of a lack of this amount of
cobalt appears more quickly in sheep. Experiments are in progress
at the Virginia station to determine whether or not the presence of a
sufficient amount of cobalt or a deficiency in the daily amounts of food
consumed bears any relationship to the degree of parasitism maintained
in the animals. Although the results are incomplete they indicate
that greater numbers of eggs per gram of feces were found in
animals on an adequate cobalt diet than in the unsupplemented animals,
but that the former made greater gains in weight.
Continuous phenothiazine therapy for horses
A long-term study of low-level phenothiazine acmriinistration to
horses has been in progress at the Kentucky station. The experiment
was planned to determine its possible toxic manifestations and its
therapeutic activity against parasites harbored by horses. Daily
doses of 2 grams of this drug were continued through 4 years. No
manifestation of toxicity was noted in any of the animals. Monthly
fecal examination for strongyle eggs showed consistently negative or
low order counts. However, on post-mortem examination relatively
large numbers of both large and small strongyles were found in the
large intestine of two of the mares. This apparent discrepancy served
to emphasize the effectiveness of the action of the drug in low-level
dosage. At this level it inhibits egg production by strongyles, even
though it is ineffective in removing mature strongyles from the intestinal
tract or in preventing development of mature strongyles from
infective larvae which may be ingested by the horse.
Blackhead in chickens and turkeys
At one time, blackhead (infectious enterohepatitis) in chickens was
considered to be a benign disease and of no economic importance.
After vaccination against fowl pox became a common practice, however,
a change was noted. Although a flock appeared to be in good
health at the time of vaccination, heavy losses were suffered from
blackhead, usually beginning 10 days to 2 weeks after vaccination and
continuing for 10 days or more. Later, heavy losses from blackhead
began to occur in the absence of any prior history of fowl pox
The efficacy of Enheptin (2-amino, 5-nitrothiazole) in the treatment
and prevention of blackhead of turkeys caused by Histomonas meleagridis
has been demonstrated by the Storrs (Connecticut) (1950)
and Maryland (1951) stations. These stations reported that, except
for a short period of retardation in the growth of the turkeys due
to depressed feed consumption, no toxic effects were noted. Enheptin
thus appeared to meet the need for a drug that would help prevent
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United States. Office of Experiment Stations. Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1953, book, 1953; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5989/m1/35/: accessed December 14, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.