Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1953 Page: 28
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28 fREPORT ON EXPERIMENT STATIONS, 1953
The greatest gain since was an additional 7 percent even though pastures
were kept free of cattle. More than 20 hosts of this tick were
found in the pasture, which probably explains the lack of effectiveness
of rotation as a preventive measure. Studies are in progress with
materials applied to the animals as repellents and acaricides.
Three years of research at the Nebraska station have shown that
cattle can be protected against stableflies, but not against hornflies,
horseflies, or deerflies, by direct applications of piperonyl butoxidepyrethrins
sprays that completely cover the animal. Control was
about the same with all types of equipment when good coverage was
obtained. The most economical formulation tested from the standpoint
of time and material was the diluted emulsion concentrate, 1
part in 15 parts water, applied twice weekly to wet the animals completely.
Less frequent applications were not as effective. The undiluted
emulsion concentrate was applied effectively with the
atomizer-type sprayer. The emulsion was applied daily in quantities
sufficient to wet the hair tips but not the animal's skin.
Sprays control houseflies in dairy barns
With the development of resistance to DDT and other insecticides
by houseflies infesting dairy barns, research on the housefly has centered
around alternate control methods. The research of the Wisconsin
station has shown that malathion did a thorough job of fly control
even in a year of heavy fly infestation. In the Wisconsin tests a dose of
10 pounds actual malathion per 100 gallons of a 10-percent sugar solution
was applied. Where sugar solution was not used, the control
period did not last as long. Walls, ceilings, and other favored fly resting
sites of the barn interior were sprayed so heavily that the material
almost ran off. The station workers report that malathion spray
should not be applied directly on animals or in milk houses. Tepp
(tetraethyl pyrophosphate) was also effective when mixed with a
sweetening agent and applied to floors and in gutters, but its toxicity
to flies lasts only a few hours. It is highly toxic to warm-blooded
animals and man.
Water conservation and mosquito control
The conservation of water in ponds and reservoirs for irrigation and
other farm purposes may lead to the development of mosquito breeding
of serious proportions. In its research on mosquito control under
such conditions the North Dakota station found that adult mosquitoes
and blackflies were effectively controlled for a period of 6 weeks by
aerial spray applications of 1 pound actual DDT per acre over municipalities
at a cost of 8 cents per capita for each application. At this
rate the insecticide had no appreciable injurious effects on birdlife,
goldfish, or honeybees.
To cut the cost of control the attack was shifted to the larvae.
Larviciding impounded waters, such as sloughs and irrigation ditches,
within a 6- to 8-mile periphery of Fargo proved to be an economical
and effective means of reducing the number of adult mosquitoes invading
the city. Larviciding of 316 acres that comprise the breeding
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United States. Office of Experiment Stations. Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1953, book, 1953; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5989/m1/30/: accessed March 27, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.