Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1953 Page: 14
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14 REPORT ON EXPERIMENT STATIONS, 1953
when exposed to severe leucosis, their mortality from that disease
was almost negligible. The North Carolina station, in its recent
studies on White Leghorns, found that mortality from leucosis has
been higher in some of the hybrid combinations than in the purebreds,
even though apparent gains have been made by the hybrids in other
characters affecting egg production.
Breeding experiments at the Iowa station have progressed to the
point where selection for leucosis-tumor resistance and susceptibility
in three generations of -birds has been accomplished. The resistant
birds of the third generation, when tested with a virulent tumor, were
more resistant than either a random group of chicks or those from the
selected susceptible line.
Newcastle and allied respiratory diseases
Previous annual reports have reviewed the history and progress of
research on Newcastle and similar respiratory diseases. Numerous
station studies are in progress on immunization and other control
measures, designed to discover control measures for new !"strains" of
the virus as these may appear, and also on the improvement of diagnostic
methods. The Wisconsin station has continued its collection
of American strains of Newcastle disease virus and its program of
typing the strains has been augmented. In addition, its laboratory
supplies other experiment stations with standard immune sera and
stock virus for use in their studies. According to the Wisconsin scientists,
Newcastle disease, like the common cold, can spread through the
air and infection can spread before symptoms appear. Infected chickens
can spread the virus in the air one or two days before disease
The Michigan station, interested in the possibility of contamination
from virus vaccines, has found that the virus of avian viscerallymphomatosis
may be present in certain chicken embryos. When
these embryos are used for production of vaccines, the virus may be
transmitted to vaccinated chickens. Knowledge of this makes possible
the establishment of necessary safeguard procedures in vaccine
The Storrs station (Connecticut), in studying possible host range
of the virus, found that 6 calves and 1 hog inoculated intracerebrally
with egg-propagated Newcastle disease virus showed minute brain
lesions on post-mortem examination. The relationship of Newcastle
disease virus and poliomyelitis virus has been studied for several
years by the Maryland station. Scientists at this station found that
the Minnesota strain of Newcastle virus will protect monkeys against
one of the three strains of poliomyelitis virus. Whether the evidence
of protection was due to immune bodies or to blocking action has not
been determined. The common English sparrow has been found by
the Indiana station to be a potential carrier of Newcastle virus.
The Massachusetts station has demonstrated that vaccine prepared
from a slightly virulent strain can be administered to poultry 3 to
20 weeks of age by spraying the vaccine over the heads of the birds
in an enclosed house or range shelter. This method may be used as
the initial vaccination of the flock or for revaccination. Respiratory
symptoms may be quite pronounced but paralytic symptoms are
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United States. Office of Experiment Stations. Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1953, book, 1953; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5989/m1/16/: accessed January 22, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.