Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1953 Page: 13
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LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION AFFECTED BY ANIMAL DISEASES 13
open and closed sheds under the cool and damp Northwestern climate
survived best in open-type buildings. Four times as many calves died
in the closed-barn group than in the open-shed type of building.
Electronic device removes tramp iron from feed--
Losses of valuable farm animals from "hardware sickness" emphasize
the importance of removing tramp metals from feedstuffs.
Borrowing the idea from a device used in the lumber industry,
engineers of the California station developed an electronic detector-rejector
that promises to be effective in spotting and removing
pieces of tramp iron, such as nails, wire, and other fragments,
from chopped grain or hay. The device, placed on the blower
pipe, detects the metal pieces while the cut feed is being blown
through the pipe. The detector is synchronized with a rejection
gate placed a little further along the blower pipe. The gate is so
timed as to throw the contaminating metal out of the feedstuff
just before the latter is blown into the hopper or bin.
A number of the diseases that formerly plagued the poultryman
are now being successfully combatted. Roup, aspergillosis, tuberculosis,
pox, pullorum, and coccidiosis, are no longer considered
major problems. Rickets, perosis, gout, and other nutritional disorders
also cause little concern. Nevertheless, losses appear to
mount and new diseases are being recognized. One disease complex
alone, lymphomatosis or leucosis, has been credited with causing
nearly one-half of all mortality among adult chickens and an undetermined
loss among young chickens. Deaths from respiratory infections,
such as infectious bronchitis, Newcastle disease, and air-sac
infection (chronic respiratory disease), are heavy.
Leucosis or lymphomatosis (breeding for resistance)
Experiment stations of 10 States-Alabama, California, Illinois,
Iowa, Michigan, New York (Cornell), North Carolina, North Dakota,
Pennsylvania, and West Virginia-in addition to the Regional Poultry
Laboratory of the Department, East Lansing, Mich., have endeavored
to control leucosis through breeding. In 1943 the California
station presented results of its 8-year-study of progeny-test selection
in the development of relatively resistant and suspectible lines of
chickens. Despite continued selection for resistance, the disease was
almost as great in the production line as it was in the foundation
stock. Nevertheless, this station believed that progeny-test selection
provided a method of keeping incidence of the disease within reasonably
low limits and should be practiced "until some other more effective
means of control may be found."
Seven years later, the New York (Cornell) station reported that
during 13 years of research the difference in mortality from neoplasma
(mostly leucosis) among proved sires of susceptible and resistant
strains constantly increased. These differences were very significant
and indicated the effectiveness of the genetic selection practiced. In
1953 the same station showed the feasibility of breeding strains of
White Leghorns capable of high egg production and so resistant that,
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United States. Office of Experiment Stations. Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1953, book, 1953; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5989/m1/15/: accessed December 11, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.