Chemical Literature, Volume 10, Number 1, Spring 1958 Page: 4
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The experiences of our staff with this valuable tool of documentation are
discussed. A number of suggested modifications in the indexing aspects of
CA, which would enhance its value for users in the medical and pharmaceutical
fields, are offered.
A brief analysis of the subject headings, in a restricted field of medical
interest, used in recent CA indexers, Is presented. A plea is made for the
greater standardization of drug nomenclature - i.e., chemical nomenclature
- and biological subject headings. An expansion of "see also" references
in accordance with the "association of ideas" concept is suggested.
Symposium on the Literature of Automation Applied to Analytical Chemistry
Joint with Division of Analytical Chemistry
M. G. Mellon, Presiding
7. INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. M. G. Mellon
8. INTRODUCTION TO THE LITERATURE OF AUTOMATIC ANALYSIS.
Gordon D. Patterson, Jr., Film Department Research Division, Du Pont
Experimental Station, Wilmington 98, Del.
All of the reasons for a technical person's interest in automatized
methods of measurement may be summarized in stating the need for more
accurate data faster! The chemist or chemical engineer, faced with a new
problem involving better measurement, rarely finds an immediately satisfactory
solution either from his professional associates or the traditional
literature of his particular field.
Many analytical chemists and literature specialists are contributing in a
fundamental way to resolving some of these problems through the provision
of new and improved approaches to continuous or intermittent measurement
in chemical reactions, whether occurring in laboratories, manufacturing
plants, the atmosphere, or the human body. These new measurements are
gradually providing the parameters necessary to define a process mathematically
for eventual automation.
In attempting to express certain fundamental generalities pertinent to
automation in analytical chemistry, this review emphasizes the improved
measurement of chemically important physical properties and improved
detection systems and cites examples from the published literature of their
9. AUTOMATION IN THERMAL METHODS. Thomas De Vries, Department
of Chemistry, Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind.
Of the thermal methods used in analytical chemistry, some are more
adaptable to automation than others. Selected methods are described with
special emphasis on recent developments. Most of the literature describing
these methods is readily available, with a few exceptions of obscure
sources. The methods which involve the measurement of a thermal property
are most adaptable to automation. Among these are (1) calorimetry
with emphasis specifically on the measurement of heats of reaction, (2) differential
thermometry, (3) thermal conductometry, and (4) thermogravimetry.
Other methods, based on a temperature-dependent property such as
solubility, vapor pressure, and velocity of sound, have beendeveloped. The
measurement of a critical solution temperature or the freezing point of a
dilute solution must also be included in a discussion of thermal methods.
A few methods such as the measurement of solubility and critical solution
temperature have not been developed to the automation stage.
10. AUTOMATION IN SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS. C. D. Lewis, Polychemicals
Department, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc., Wilmington,
Many of the spectroscopic methods of analysis have been automatized
for routine analysis and for continuous, process-stream monitoring in industry.
These methods are attractive for such uses because they are rapid,
reliable, and nondestructive of sample. Thousands of automatic spectroscopic
instruments are now in constant use, and some of them are even applied
to direct control of continuous processes.
Recent advances in infrared, ultraviolet, visible, emission, and x-ray
spectroscopy as applied to automatic analysis are considered. Increasing
use of dispersive instruments has occurred because of their specificity
and versatility. Nondispersive instruments, found in the majority of applications,
have developed toward improved simplicity for ruggedness in
service, combined with a high degree of sensitivity. In both types, requirements
for measurement of substances at part-per-million and even
lower concentrations have been met by longer optical paths, improved
sensitivity of detectors, and special devices for handling samples.
Greater selectivity for individual components of complex mixtures has
been sought by the use of narrow-band optical filters and novel compensation
techniques. In some cases, notably in air pollution work, photometric
measurements have been combined with color-forming reactions which are
highly specific and sensitive for a component of interest. Likely avenues
of promising development forthe spectroscopic methods are also suggested.
11. AUTOMATION IN TITRIMETRId METHODS. Howard V. Malmstadt,
University of Illinois, Urbana, Ill.
In a volumetric analysis and in the final determination of a substance by
a titration procedure there are many manipulations, all of which can be removed
from the hands of the chemist and automatically performed. This
presentation is limited to a discussion of automation of the manipulations
inherent in the titration procedure and the use of automatic titrations for
specific quantitative determinations.
An ideal instrument for rapid titrations might be considered as one in
which a chemist places his sample, presses a button, and a short time
later reads the result from a report sheet. Although such an apparatus is
possible for some specific titrations, no one apparatus is, at present,
generally applicable to all titrations, and it is necessary for the chemist
to decide what components, instruments, and techniques are best suited for
his specific requirements. A general discussion of the features and
characteristics of existing automatic titration instruments and methods is
aimed at providing a review of the literature and an outline of important
topics to be considered in following automatic titration developments.
TUESDAY MORNING AND AFTERNOON
Symposium on New Tools for the Resurrection of Knowledge
J. W. Perry, Presiding
12. INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. J. W. Perry.
13. CORRELATION OF STRUCTURE AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
WITH UTILITY OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS. R. A. Carpenter,
Chemistry Division, Midwest Research Institute, Kansas City, Mo.
Out of the half million chemical compounds which we have made or know
how to make today, only about 5000 are in commercial usage. The reason
for this is simple. Most new compounds are tried out in only one or two
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American Chemical Society. Division of Chemical Literature. Chemical Literature, Volume 10, Number 1, Spring 1958, periodical, Spring 1958; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5747/m1/4/: accessed October 17, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .