Chemical Literature, Volume 21, Number 1, Spring 1969 Page: 2
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Margaret S. Hicks, Secretary
MONDAY MORNING & AFTERNOON - SYMPOSIUM ON PRIMARY JOURNALS - H. L. Reynolds, Presiding
1. DEVELOPMENT OF PRIMARY JOURNALS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON SCIENCE, Chauncey D. Leake,
University of California, San Francisco, California 94122.
In considering the present status and predictable future of primary journals, we
must first examine the origin of journals and their gradual development into the forms
we now know. Some of the present problems faced by journals can be traced to past
practices. The growth of the journal system has paralleled the expansion of modern
science, and it can be argued that in some ways the journals have influenced the manner
in which science has developed.
2. AUTHORS AND JOURNALS, John G. Darley, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis,
There appears to be a clear dysfunction between the archival and the information
exchange functions of our present 'hnical journals. Any attempt to solve this
problem must take account of the r ..e played by the present journal system in the
incentive and reward structure of authors. Some evidence on this point may be found
in the data collected by the Information Exchange Project of the American
Psychological Association. These data will be discussed in connection with other
findings on journal contributors, journal readership, redundancy in information
exchange, "gatekeeping" functions, and the testing of innovations in archival or
information exchange systems.
3. PROBLEMS OF THE PRIMARY JOURNAL, David E. Gushee, 1155 Sixteenth Street, N. W.
Washington, D. C. 20036.
In a period of rapid growth such as the past 20 years, it has been hard to mismanage
journals enough to cause them to lose money. However, journal publication is now
taking on the symptoms of a maturing operation, so that sharper control over the system
is essential to prevent bankruptcy. Control points are distribution of costs among
beneficiaries (authors, sponsors, industry, and subscribers), reduction of unit costs,
attention to article length and information density, and consideration of modifications
in the traditional ways of presenting the results of research. The limitation is to
apply controls in such a way as not to interfere with the transmission of the essential
4. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PRIMARY PUBLICATIONS AND SECONDARY INFORMATION SERVICES.
B. J. Rowlett, F. A. Tate, and J. L. Wood, Chemical Abstracts Service, The Ohio
State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210
Most secondary services are intended to provide defined routes of access to the
primary literature, either in the sense of providing user awareness of new information
potentially of interest or in the sense of providing organized access to an accumulated
record, or both. The more inclusive secondary services are generally intended to provide
full identification of the primary publications in which details of subject content
are to be found. Such services try to provide sufficient information to allow a qualified
reader to decide whether to get and examine a given primary publication. In its
role as an accessing system, a secondary service should work closely both with the primary
publishers and the library community. Close cooperation and coordination among
these three groups could significantly reduce user costs, increase timeliness, improve
reliability, and extend usefulness of recorded information. Some of the possibilities
for joint programs between these segments of the information-handling community will
S. THE PRIMARY SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL: PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE. Arthur Herschman,
American Institute of Physics, 335 E. 45th St., New York, N.Y. 10017.
A discussion is made of the historical role of the primary scientific journal as a communications
medium and as a social institution of science. In particular, an analysis is made of the roles
which this institution plays at present, both in view of its ostensible purpose and because of its
own internal momentum as an institution. A prognosis is given of the future state of the primary
journal and the manner in which some of its functions are likely to be assumed by other
developing institutions such as information centers and systems. .
6. NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN PRIMARY JOURNAL PUBLICATION. Joseph H. Kuney, American Chemical
Society, 1155 16th St., N.W., Washington, D. C. 20036.
In the immediate future efforts will be accelerated to provide users with more selective
groupings of articles designed to meet the growing variety of individualized
needs resulting from the growth of specialization and the demands of an increasingly
large and well-informed user population. These attempts will vary from the availability
of single copies of articles on an "on-demand" basis to the publication of customized
packages of articles produced through the use of computerized profile-matching techniques.
To further aid the user in moving through large numbers of papers, editors will move to
limit journal articles to no more than a page or two in length and following a fixed
matrix for form and for type of content. Additional material and supporting data will be
made available in microform or in a master journal intended for use in libraries or information
In these efforts and in the current developments in computerized typesetting the
groundwork is being laid for a computer-based system of disseminating and using primary
information. In such a system a paper will be put into machine-readable form as soon as
it enters the system and all subsequent editorial processing will be within the computer.
In turn users will have access to the content of the system via remote consoles which
will permit on-line access for fulfillment of the variety of user needs that the journal
system now provides.
7. SUBJECT INDEXING AS A BY-PRODUCT OF ELECTRONIC COMPOSITION. E. R. Lannon, Consumer
Protection and Environmental Health Service, DHEW, 200 C Street, S.W.,Washington,
D. C. 20204
The preparation of a subject index to a publication is a time-consuming process
since it can not be completed until the printer provides the author or editor with page
proof which, for the first time in the publication process, indicates the precise
page number for a relevant index term. With the advent of electronic composition
it becomes possible t6 use the computer to produce the subject index contemporaneously
with page proof. Two methods of achieving this end will be discussed and one method
will be demonstrated. Computer programs developed for insertion into the Linotron
Master Typography System of the Electronic Composing System of the U.S. Government
Printing Office will be demonstrated by showing the changing page references to a
single publication which is composed in varying type sizes, e.g., six-point, tenpoint
and twelve-point, produced by the program.
Experimental work in developing an algorithm which will recognize significant terms
within a page as the page is being made up for composing purposes will also be discussed.
When the algorithm has been programmed the system will produce a subject
index authomatically as a by-product of the composing process.
TUESDAY MORNING - GENERAL - C. M. Bowman, Presiding
8. AN EXPERIMENT STATION FOR CHEMICAL INFORMATION. Edward M. Arnett, Department of
Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa. 15213.
The development of a Chemical Information Center at the University of Pittsburgh
will be described. The Oakland area of Pittsburgh provides an ideal setting for
exposing a large variety of chemically-oriented users to computer-based information
services. A collaborative effort by the Chemistry Department, Library, Computer Center,
Knowledge Availability Systems Center, assisted by behavioral scientists is aimed at
finding which kinds of chemists have the greatest need for which kinds of information
services, and what are the best methods of training and implementation. Current
AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY DIVISION OF
Carlos Morales Bowman, Chairman
157th ACS National Meeting
14- 16, 196
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American Chemical Society. Division of Chemical Literature. Chemical Literature, Volume 21, Number 1, Spring 1969, periodical, Spring 1969; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5711/m1/2/: accessed August 19, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .