An Impulse-Momentum Method for Calculating Landing-Gear Contact Conditions in Eccentric Landings

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An impulse-momentum method for determining impact conditions for landing gears in eccentric landings is presented. The analysis is primarily concerned with the determination of contact velocities for impacts subsequent to initial touchdown in eccentric landings and with the determination of the effective mass acting on each landing gear. These parameters determine the energy-absorption requirements for the landing gear and, in conjunction with the particular characteristics of the landing gear, govern the magnitude of the ground loads. Changes in airplane angular and linear velocities and the magnitude of landing-gear vertical, drag, and side impulses resulting from a landing impact are determined ... continued below

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Yntema, Robert T & Milwitzky, Benjamin January 1, 1952.

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  • Main Title: An Impulse-Momentum Method for Calculating Landing-Gear Contact Conditions in Eccentric Landings
  • Series Title: NACA Technical Notes

Description

An impulse-momentum method for determining impact conditions for landing gears in eccentric landings is presented. The analysis is primarily concerned with the determination of contact velocities for impacts subsequent to initial touchdown in eccentric landings and with the determination of the effective mass acting on each landing gear. These parameters determine the energy-absorption requirements for the landing gear and, in conjunction with the particular characteristics of the landing gear, govern the magnitude of the ground loads. Changes in airplane angular and linear velocities and the magnitude of landing-gear vertical, drag, and side impulses resulting from a landing impact are determined by means of impulse-momentum relationships without the necessity for considering detailed force-time variations. The effective mass acting on each gear is also determined from the calculated landing-gear impulses. General equations applicable to any type of eccentric landing are written and solutions are obtained for the particular cases of an impact on one gear, a simultaneous impact on any two gears, and a symmetrical impact. In addition a solution is presented for a simplified two-degree-of-freedom system which allows rapid qualitative evaluation of the effects of certain principal parameters. The general analysis permits evaluation of the importance of such initial conditions at ground contact as vertical, horizontal, and side drift velocities, wing lift, roll and pitch angles, and rolling and pitching velocities, as well as the effects of such factors as landing gear location, airplane inertia, landing-gear length, energy-absorption efficiency, and wheel angular inertia on the severity of landing impacts. -A brief supplementary study which permits a limited evaluation of variable aerodynamic effects neglected in the analysis is presented in the appendix. Application of the analysis indicates that landing-gear impacts in eccentric landings can be appreciably more severe than impacts in symmetrical landings with the same sinking speed. The results also indicate the effects of landing-gear location, airplane inertia, initial wing lift, side drift velocity, attitude, and initial rolling velocity on the severity of both initial and subsequent landing-gear impacts. A comparison of the severity of impacts on auxiliary gears for tricycle and quadricycle configurations is also presented.

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  • : 93R12714
  • URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930083424 External Link
  • Report No.: NACA-TN-2596
  • Center for AeroSpace Information Number: 19930083424
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc56236

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National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Collection

The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) was a U.S. federal agency founded on March 3, 1915 to undertake, promote, and institutionalize aeronautical research. On October 1, 1958 the agency was dissolved, and its assets and personnel transferred to the newly created National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

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  • January 1, 1952

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • Nov. 16, 2011, 7:33 a.m.

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  • Feb. 1, 2017, 5:27 p.m.

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Yntema, Robert T & Milwitzky, Benjamin. An Impulse-Momentum Method for Calculating Landing-Gear Contact Conditions in Eccentric Landings, report, January 1, 1952; (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc56236/: accessed November 22, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.