Experiment Station Record, Volume 92, January-June, 1945 Page: 55
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1945 HORTICULTURAL 55
nitrogen did not develop deficiency symptoms due to a lack of phosphorus as soon
as did plants. which received nitrate nitrogen. This was true of plants grown at
pH 4.8-5.0 and at 6.8-7.0, although the symptoms were slower in developing at the
more acid level. Plants furnished urea at pH 6.8-7.0 made much better growth
than at pH 4.8-5.0, The uptake of phosphorus was measured by the radioactivity
technic. Tomatoes which received urea absorbed P at a greater rate than did plants
which received nitrate N. The delay in the appearance of P deficiency symptoms
in the urea-supplied plants is attributed to their increased P reserve rather than to
a partial breakdown in their nitrate reduction mechanism. P-deficient plants were
shown to absorb P at a greater rate than did normal plants grown in the same solution.
Apparently the various P compounds of the plant were synthesized in about the
same proportions by the P-deficient plant as by the normal plant but at a greater
Speed sprayer is big labor saver; works best on medium high trees, F. N.
FAGAN, D. E. H. FREAR, and H. J. MILLER (Pennsylvania Sta. Bul. 446, Sup. 3
(1944), pp. 2-3, illus. 3).-The use of a speed sprayer resulted in a crop of fruit
almost free from insect damage and with only moderate fungus injury. Labor
costs were cut approximately in half, and the materials were applied much more
promptly. However, residue tests showed that spray coverage was not as good
in the tops as in the lower parts of the trees. The machine is described and its
Physical characters of the skin in relation to apple fruit transpiration, S. A.
PIENIAZEK. (R. I. Expt. Sta.). (Plant Physiol., 19 (1944), No. 3, pp. 529-536,
illus. 1).-In studies with McIntosh, Baldwin, Golden Delicious, and Rhode Island
Greening, apple varieties representing a wide difference in transpiration rates, there
was observed no well-defined relationship between transpiration rate and thickness
of the cuticle. Lenticular transpiration accounted for from 8 to over 25 percent
of the total in the four varieties. The lenticels appeared to be more effective in
transpiration directly after harvest than later in storage. The number and size of
the lenticels was not correlated with the rate of transpiration. Surface russeting
increased greatly the rate of water loss. The waxy coating on the skin was found
highly important in diminishing water loss. Golden Delicious, with an insignificant
wax coating, had a high transpiration rate. Wiping fruits tended to increase water
loss by removing some of the surface wax.
Preparing apples for market and their sale, A. E. MURNEEK and H. H. BAKER
(Missouri Sta. Cir. 295 (1944), pp. 20, illus. 5).-Timely information is given on
various factors in the harvesting and handling of apples, including determination of
proper stage maturity for picking summer and winter varieties, spot picking, use
of preharvest sprays to prevent early dropping, management of the picking crew,
removal of spray residues, grading, storage requirements to maintain fruit in good
conditions, methods of selling apples, consumer preferences, etc.
The growth of young peach trees under different systems of soil management,
A. D. HIBBARD. (Mo. Expt. Sta.). (Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc., 44 (1944), pp.
66-70, illus. 1).-Of a number of types of soil management tried in a young Elberta
orchard, those tilled at intervals of about 2 weeks from April 1 to September 1,
when a cover of winter rye or barley was sown, made the most growth and those
receiving only one cultivation yearly made the least growth. As a group, winter
legumes produced larger trees' than either summer legumes or mulches. The system
employing vetch produced almost as rapid growth as did cultivation. Cowpeas
proved best among summer legumes. The poorest growth of all occurred on the
permanent lespedeza sod plots. Unfortunately some of the treatments that were
most favorable to tree growth result also in severe soil and water losses. It is
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U.S. Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Administration. Office of Experiment Stations. Experiment Station Record, Volume 92, January-June, 1945, book, 1947; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5064/m1/68/: accessed November 18, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.