Experiment Station Record, Volume 92, January-June, 1945 Page: 49
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1945] FIELD CROPS 49
tained in station tests. Up to 19 tons of silage were made per acre, comparable
with corn. Sunflowers have had no effects on the soil detrimental to following
crops even with tobacco, very sensitive to preceding crop, in experiments, in the
Connecticut Valley. Sunflower stalks chopped fine with a silage cutter made very
good litter for poultry.
Emerald, new type of sweetclover, K. F. MANKE and W. H. FRIEND. (Tex.
Expt. Sta.). (Seed World, 56 (1944), No. 3, p. 8).-Emerald, a new white-blossomed
annual sweetclover developed at the Weslaco (Tex.) Substation, has distinctive
green seed, has finer stems and more branches, and, is leafier than Hubam.
Emerald showed much greater recovery than Hubam after close grazing near
Bishop and was pastured long after Melilots indica had matured. This sweetclover
has yielded less total forage than Hubam, yet it is a hay and grazing plant of
better quality and should replace Hubam wherever annual sweetclovers are used
for forage, particularly in irrigated sections. The new sweetclover was derived
by selection among the progeny of a cross made at Lincoln, Neb., between Hubam
and a many-stemmed, crown-branching, leafy, green-seeded, white-blossomed,
biennial sweetclover selected at Brookings, S. Dak., in 1935.
Soil treatments for winter wheat: A summary of field experiments, L. B.
MILLER and F. C. BAUER (Illinois Sta. Bul. 503 (1944), pp. 175-211, ills. 14).Experiments
involving winter wheat on soil fields (E. S. R., 78, p. 479) distributed
over Illinois and in cooperation with farmers, concerned with treatment systems to
improve productivity, direct fertilizer application at planting and their combinations
are reviewed and summarized.
Suggestions to growers based on the findings include choice of adapted varieties
(E. S. R., 91, p. 411). Rotations should provide a moderate supply of nitrates and
organic matter in the soil at seeding time. On soils moderate or low in productivity,
wheat may be grown after legume or sod crops, but on fertile soils it had better
follow a small grain. Liming of acid soil is needed for a good growth of soilbuilding
legumes, considered a good source of N. For P-deficient soils (E. S. R.,
87, p. 640), application of 1,000 to 1,500 Ib. of rock phosphate per acre every 8 to 12
yr. is recommended. Superphosphate or other P carriers have given best results
when applied in small quantities for each responsive crop in the rotation. Drilling
P or PK fertilizers is effective on soils low in these nutrients. Standard grades, as
20-percent superphosphate and 0-20-10, may be drilled at rates of 100 to 150 lb.
per acre at seeding time. If broadcast, the fertilizer should amount to 200 to
250 lb. and applied before seeding and mixed with the surface soil. K, where
needed, may be supplied by 100 to 250 lb. of potassium chloride broadcast at seeding
time, the optimum rate depending on degree of deficiency and the way other
crops in the rotation are fertilized. With wheat sown after a late-maturing crop,
as soybeans, temporary P deficiency may develop and justify drilling superphosphate
or mixed fertilizers even on soils otherwise well supplied with available P. Early
spring applications of 100 to 125 lb. of ammonium sulfate per acre, or its N equivalent
in other carriers, have given good returns on N-deficient soils. Top dressing
with nitrate fertilizers on fertile land is usually ineffective and may cause lodging.
Where lodging is a serious problem, as on soils high in nitrates, stiff-strawed wheat
varieties should be grown. Under Illinois conditions hazards from winterkilling
and drought and from insect and disease injury have been materially reduced and
yield and quality increased by good soil management.
The effect of level of soil fertility on wheat quality, W. W. WORZELLA. (Ind.
Expt. Sta.). (Cereal Chem., 21 (1944), No. 2, pp. 107-119).--Determinations of
test weight, kernel size, gluten strength, granulation, carotenoid pigment, crude
protein, and ash data for the five varieties of wheat grown on three levels of soil
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U.S. Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Administration. Office of Experiment Stations. Experiment Station Record, Volume 92, January-June, 1945, book, 1947; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5064/m1/62/: accessed July 25, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.