Experiment Station Record, Volume 92, January-June, 1945 Page: 39
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1945] GENETICS 39
collected and used in artificial insemination by methods of Burrows .and Quinn
(E. S. R., 73, p. 671). There was a correlation of -0.9631 between the fertilizing
capacity of the spermatozoa produced by Barred Plymouth Rock males' and the
X-ray dose in fertilization of eggs produced by White Leghorn hens. Fertilization
was performed on the eggs of 21 hens by the usual vaginal method and by exposing
the ovary and irrigating the gonad with undiluted semen from one or the other
of two males, obtained on alternate days. There was a distinct falling off in the
length of the functional life span of irradiated spermatozoa as the intensity of
radiation was increased. Longevity of the treated sperm compared favorably with
controls during the first 10 days, but the total functional life span was shortened.
Treatment within the biotic range did not alter the motility or morphology of the
spermatozoa. The sex ratio of the offspring was significantly modified to a preponderance
of male chicks, at least with the smaller doses. Zygotic mortality during
the early part of incubation when death occurred was closely related to the
intensity of irradiation of the paternal germ cells. Reduced fertilizing capacity
occurred as the intensity of irradiation was increased, as a result of the greater
proportion of injured germ cells. These studies were based on the hatching qualities
of about 100 eggs fertilized by sperm subjected to nine different multiples of
231 roentgen units and also by untreated controls.
On the function of the ruptured ovarian follicle of the domestic fowl, I. ROTHCHLD
and R. M. FRAPS. (U. S. D. A.). (Soc. Expt. Biol. and Med. Proc., 56
(1944), No. 2, pp.' 79-82).-The ruptured follicle of a hen was shown to participate
decisively in the control of time of lay of the egg normally arising from
ovulation of its previously contained ovum or yolk.. The most recently ovulated
follicle was removed from 22 hens, and the oldest maturing follicle next due to
ovulate was removed from 30 other hens. In the first group, 17 retained the eggs
to be laid next from 9 hr. to 3 days longer than estimated, and in the second group
2 hens retained their eggs from 3 to 5 hr. In another group of 15 hens, both the
most recently ruptured follicles and the most mature of the maturing follicles were
removed, with the result that 14 hens retained eggs for 1 to 7 days. The second
most recently ovulated follicle was removed from 18 hens, leaving the most recently
ruptured follicle intact, and of these, 14 laid at the expected hour and 4 retained
their eggs not exceeding 5 hr. In sham operations on 17 hens, 16 laid at the expected
time and I held its egg 1 day, possibly as a result of follicular injury. Removal
of other parts of the ovary practically never resulted in delaying ovulation
as much as removal of the most recent follicle. The development of the most
recently ruptured follicle of the hen is therefore believed to be an important factor
in determining the time of laying of the egg formed from its previously contained
Relationship between the genital eminence of day-old female chicks and age
of sexual maturity, R. E. PHILLIPS and C. S. WILLIAMS. (Md. Expt. Sta.).
(Poultry Sci., 23 (1944), No. 4, pp. 348-349).-No relationship was found among
330 Barred Plymouth Rock pullets in the size, shape, and texture of the genital
eminence of day-old chicks and the onset of sexual maturity. This is in agreement
with the findings of Hammond and Burrows (E. S. R., 78, p. 235).
Anterior pituitary-thyroid relationships in the fowl, F. PAYNE (Anat. Rec., 88
(1944), No. 4, pp. 337-350, ills. 12).-Study of the anterior pituitary-thyroid
relationship in the domestic fowl involved primarily the cytology of the anterior
pituitary following thyroxin injections and thyroidectomy of normal male chicks
and capons. The function of these cells is still confusing. Morphological evidence
indicates that they are secretory in the fowl. Cytological studies alone indicate
that they are not basophiles and therefore do, not secrete a gonadotropic hormone.
A certain analogy was found between cell formation following thyroidectomy
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U.S. Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Administration. Office of Experiment Stations. Experiment Station Record, Volume 92, January-June, 1945, book, 1947; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5064/m1/52/: accessed October 19, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.