Experiment Station Record, Volume 92, January-June, 1945 Page: 20
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20 EXPERIMENT STATION RECORD Vol. 92
methods such as turfing of ditch banks and stream banks, etc., and improvements
in cropping practices are discussed.
Sedimentation in a great harbor, L. C. GOTTSCHALK (U. S. Dept. Agr., Soil
Conserv., 10 (1944), No. 1, pp. 3-5, 11-12, illus. 3).--The history of the sedimentation
of Baltimore Harbor is outlined from the time of the first white settlement to presentday
conditions. The sedimentation of a succession of reservoirs serving the same
city is also discussed.
"Preliminary studies in the Patapsco River watershed indicate that approved
conservation practices such as gully control, strip cropping, stream-bank protection,
terracing, contour plowing, crop rotation, and other measures, which can be fitted
into the farm economy, would result in a substantial reduction of dredging costs in
the harbor as well as very large benefits to the farmers and landowners. The sediment
inflow to Baltimore Harbor is conservatively estimated to be about 600,000 cu.
yd. annually. About 90 percent of this is derived from approximately one-third of
the drainage area, mostly from the cultivated land. The total installation cost of
erosion-control measures in the sediment source areas, plus maintenance for 25 yr.,
is estimated to be about $750,000. With a well-planned and carefully executed program,
it is estimated that the sediment inflow from this area could be reduced by
nearly 75 percent, which, at prevailing contract dredging costs, would amount to a
savings of $60,750 annually to the Federal Government alone. On the basis of
benefits received solely from reduced dredging costs, this program, which should
require no longer than 5 yr. to complete, would pay for itself in a little more than
12 yr. from date of completion. Over a period of 25 yr. it would not only pay for
itself but would save the Government three-quarters of a million dollars besides."
These benefits are in addition to those affecting the farm lands to be protected from
Further experiments to determine the organisms responsible for decomposition
of cellulose in soils, C. E. SKINNER and E. M. MELLEM (Ecology, 25 (1944),
No. 3, pp. 360-365).-On adding finely divided filter paper to acid soils, 60 percent
saturated with water, with or without nitrates, no evidence was found of the activity
of cellulose-decomposing bacteria, although mold growth increased greatly. In soils
with an initial pH above 5.0, both molds and cellulose-decomposing bacteria showed
a significant increase. The conclusion of Dubos (E. S. R., 59, p. 717) that both
aerobic bacteria and molds take part in the decomposition of cellulose in nonsaturated
soils, unless they are distinctly acid, is shown to be correct.
The occurrence and distribution of algae in soils, F. B. SMITH. (Univ. Fla.).
(Fla. Acad. Sci. Proc., 7 (1944), No. 1, pp. 44-49).-Norfolk fine sand, Orangeburg
fine sandy loam, Bradenton fine sandy loam, and Muskingum stony loam were used in
the investigation. The list of species of algae is presented for each soil studied.
While certain forms are widely distributed in soils, the different soil types were
found to have a characteristic algal flora, or, at least, soil type differences were
Three decades with soil fungi, S. A. WAKSMAN. (N. J. Expt. Stas.). (Soil
Sci., 58 (1944), No. 2, pp. 89-115, illus. 6).-The author here reviews 30 yr. of the
work of the 'department of soil microbiology ot the station, beginning with his own
first experiments to ascertain whether or not fungi are capable of growing and
produce a mycelium in a normal soil. Under the head of problems considered, a
caption which covers the principal content of the review, there are taken up the
following topics: Do fungi produce vegetative mycelium in the soil; enumeration
of fungi in the soil; nature of the fungus population of the soil; biochemical activities
of fungi and their bearing upon soil processes; associative and antagonistic
effects of soil fungi; fungus population of the soil in relation to growth of higher
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U.S. Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Administration. Office of Experiment Stations. Experiment Station Record, Volume 92, January-June, 1945, book, 1947; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5064/m1/33/: accessed June 22, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.