Experiment Station Record, Volume 92, January-June, 1945 Page: 19
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1945] SOILS-FERTILIZERS 19
method of planting seed in prepared covers of sorghums is valuable as a stabilization
practice on large critical areas, the author feels that whenever plantings' could be
made with reasonable safety on clean or fallowed land this method can be expected
to produce grass stands in less time than plantings in any kind of "prepared" or
weed cover. Under favorable moisture conditions, it should be possible to use
fallow in those areas of heavy soils where fallow has been a part of the regular wheat,
fallow, wheat or sorghum, fallow, wheat rotations. August grass plantings on land
clean fallowed with deep furrow cultivation equipment during May, June, and July,
or plantings on land kept fallow by the "stubble-mulch' method, appear to be possible
solutions. In the regrassing of areas now under cultivation, the procedure
should depend on the physical characteristics of the land and on how soon a stand
of desirable grass is wanted. Progressive, annual retirement and the use of strip
cropping, strip reseeding, contour furrows, and terraces over a period of 3-5 yr.
are believed to offer certain definite advantages of soil protection, moisture conservation,
and probability of success. The choice of method for regrassing areas
which have a cover of weeds will depend on conditions the same as those for land
now in cultivation, and, in addition, on the growth form of the weed cover. The
chances of direct reseeding are believed good on heavy soils with a weed cover of
low-growing Russian-thistles, provided there has been but little soil accumulation
from recent duststorms. It appeared of little use to tear out a weed cover to grow
a preparatory sorghum or other crop cover in which to plant. When moisture and
temperature are favorable, plantings of 0.5 in. or less are more successful than deep
plantings. Although depth of planting is often a deciding factor in emergence, it
becomes less and less important as time goes on and a stand is established, especially
in the use of such sod-forming grasses as 'western wheatgrass and buffalo grass.
Favorable moisture conditions were also of greater significance than whether plantings
were made in the spring or fall. This was true of the warm temperature
grasses, like the gramas and the buffalo grass, as well as a cool temperature grass,
such as western wheatgrass. The total available moisture in the' 0- to 24-in. zone at
planting time was found to be of more importance in establishment than any extra
moisture possibly conserved during and after seedling emergence by a noncompetitive
'The result of mowing grass plantings is determined by the character of the weeds
and by the species of grass. In eastern Colorado, the mowing of plantings made in
certain types of low-growing Russian-thistles will not often give significant returns
either in increased stands or reduction of weeds. Whenever grass mixture plantings
containing mid-grasses and short grasses are mowed, a codominance of short and
mid-grasses can be expected in the resulting turf. As a rule, pure-stand plantings
of blue grama and western wheatgrass are not significantly improved by mowing,
but buffalo grass can be expected to be improved in almost every case. Mowing of
high weeds, such as a rank growth of upright pigweed, Amaranthus retroflexus L.,
in a wet year may be of some value.
Fish and farms suffer when the Maumee runs brown, T. H. LANGLOIS
(U. S. Dept. Agr., Soil Conserv., 10 (1944), No. 1, pp. 6-8, 15, illus. 6).-The lands
here discussed were under swamp forest cover when first developed (about 1850)
for agricultural use by clearing and by drainage of the swamp waters into the
Maumee River. These lands were once the bed of a glacial lake and are so nearly
level that extensive ditch and tile drainage is necessary.' Crops are very good bnt
cropping, practices are such that they leave the soil without cover during critical
rainfall periods, and it is stated that a huge loss of some of the richest soil in our
country is occurring. The resulting sedimentation of the west end of Lake Erie has
seriously interfered with the continued growth of aquatic vegetation and thus in
turn with maintenance of the commercial catch of food fishes. Improved drainage
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U.S. Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Administration. Office of Experiment Stations. Experiment Station Record, Volume 92, January-June, 1945, book, 1947; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5064/m1/32/: accessed April 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.