Experiment Station Record, Volume 92, January-June, 1945 Page: 179
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1945] AGRICULTURAL BOTANY 179
mud in contact with crude oil produced carotenoid pigments when cultured in a
mineral salts medium with mineral oil as the sole organic constituent, analysis of
the medium revealed four carotenoid pigments. Three were carotene pigments
with spectrographic properties similar to that. of f/-carotene but with different degrees
of chromatographic behavior and vitamin A activity. Though one of these
pigments may be identified as f-carotene, the other two could not be identified and
are believed to be isomers of p-carotene, A fourth pigment possessed chemical and
spectrographic properties of astacin,, an acidic carotenoid found primarily in
crustaceans and hitherto never associated with carotenoids of Mycobacterium spp.
Prolonged incubation effected spectrographic and quantitative changes in the pigmentation
of these mineral oil cultures, the quantity of carotene pigments decreasing
while the amount of astacin increased. There are 26 references.
Aerobic decomposition of guayule shrub (Parthenium argentatum Gray), J.
NAGHSKI, J. W. WHITE, JR., and S. R. HOOVER. (U. S. D. A.). (Jour. Bact., 48
(1944), No. 2, pp. 159-178, illus. 6).-Aerobic decomposition of the crushed shrub
was effected at 36, 44, and 52 C. for 1-3 weeks, the profuse microflora were
tested for biochemical reactions, and the predominating organisms were identified.
A 20-30 percent loss of dry weight, with marked disintegration of the woody tissues,
was noted in 5-14 days. The disappearance of water-soluble carbohydrates and the
existence of a saccharolytic flora were correlated with the markedly thermogenic
phase of the first week; a mixed and neutral' proteolytic flora followed during
the second and third weeks. Fungi-primarily Aspergillus fumigatus-occurred in
numbers of 105-10 per gram throughout the whole period. Organisms of major
importance were: Saccharolytic-A chromobacter lacticum, A. ubiquitum, and A.
reticularum (?); neutral-Pseudomonas incognita, P. putida, A. alcaliaromaticum,
A. candicans, and Actilomyces spp.; and proteolytic-P. aeruginosa, Flavobacterium
fecale, and Bacillus subtilis.
A drop method of penicillin production, S. A. SCUDDER (Sciece, 100 (1944),
No. 2591, p. 178).-The method consists of culturing on a solid agar base containing
constituents favoring a rapid production of penicillin in drops sufficient in size
and quantity to be precipitated like rain on the opposing side of the container,
when inverted. The material yielded is withdrawn by pipette and preserved
anaerobically at 5 C.
Penicillin production, I. A. PEARL and J. W. APPLING (Science, 100 (1944), No.
2586, p. 51).-A note on the value of both sulfite waste liquor and corn steep liquor
for penicillin production.
The production of penicillin by various fungi, J. W. FOSTER and E. O. KAROW
(Jour. Bact., 48 (1944), No. 2, p. 260).-An abstract. Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium
citreo-roseum are referred to in this connection.
Action of radioactive substances on the speed of growth of Penicillium, notatum
and the production of a potent penicillin, R. JAHIEL, E. GUBERMAN, and
R. KAZDAN (Science, 100 (1944), No. 2596, p. 298).-The experiments briefly noted
show the possibility of substantially decreasing the time required for the growth
of P. notatum and for obtaining an active penicillin, tested in vitro, in the presence
of radon and its deposits. It is believed that these radioactive substances act
through their radiations rather than their chemical properties. Addition of a
fluorescent material to the medium in which radioactive substances were present
improved noticeably the effects, of the latter.
Heterokaryosis in Penicillium notatum, G. E. BAKER (Bul. Torrky Bot. Club,
71 (1944), No. 4, pp. 367-373, illus. 10).-Conidia of. P. notatum were found to be
uninucleate and to germinate by 1-2 germ tubes. Anastomosis occurred freely
among spores and hyphae, accompanied by nuclear division and nuclear migration.
The assimilative hyphae were plurinucleate or binucleate, becoming uninucleate in
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U.S. Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Administration. Office of Experiment Stations. Experiment Station Record, Volume 92, January-June, 1945, book, 1947; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5064/m1/192/: accessed September 25, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.