The Effects of Training History on Retention and Reacquisition of Stimulus Control: Searching Inside

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... Tucker, Kathryn Lynn. The effects of training history on retention and reacquisition of stimulus... on retention and re-acquisition of stimulus control of previously learned behaviors. In Phase I, two pairs..., references, 6 titles. The purpose of this experiment was to study the effects of training history... and probe sessions were run. Despite achieving the designated criterion during training, stimulus control... behaviors were trained concurrently. The number of sessions required to reach stimulus control criteria

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... the participant's training history on error type and frequency and on stimulus control reacquisition were seen... provides evidence that the subject's training history can affect the retention and reacquisition... of stimulus control. During training, stimulus control criteria were always met, but errors during the probe... behaviors produced by extinction, based on the participant's previous training history. However... difference in the acquisition of stimulus control of the circle and touch behaviors. Another improvement

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... the effects of the participant's prior training history on retention of stimulus control, not the effects... history on the retention and reacquisition of stimulus-response relations. Two pairs of behaviors were... history, either through reinforcement during shaping or by proximity in training schedules. To avoid... of accuracy, to evaluate stimulus control. In this procedure, the emission of incorrect responses... not matter because the response was not under stimulus control to begin with. This allows us to study

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.... The effects of the participant's training history were first evident when looking at the reacquisition... of stimulus control in Phase I. To study reacquisition, we examined the number of training sessions required..., and spin) were not under stimulus control. This disruption of stimulus control was first apparent... were individually trained to criteria using a mass trial procedure; however, the stimulus control...) criteria for stimulus control of cues. During the probe sessions, we changed the context again by adding

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... the effects of training history on stimulus control retention. Setting and Materials All sessions took place... 3 The results show that even when a behavior is trained to criteria, the stimulus control

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... reduce the retention of stimulus control over time. The type of errors emitted under the touch cue... (mostly the circle response) provides further evidence that the temporal training history of the circle... and touch cues can also affect stimulus control. This effect was not present under the down cue, possibly... The number of training sessions required to achieve criteria was consistently low compared... to that of Phase I and could be due to the absence of "interruptive" alternative training conditions

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..., the introduction of other training conditions can affect stimulus control of previously trained responses.... In this phase, retention of stimulus control was tested by measuring the frequency and type of errors for each... cues, and stimulus control was transferred to (new) vocal cues. This initial training of circle.... After these two behaviors reached criteria, all subsequent training followed an interspersed training... the first interspersed training set and subsequent probe sessions for the spin/down condition (5 total

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... to extinction-induced variability was prevented. All trials were reinforced, and stimulus control retention could... to analyze stimulus control, rather than extinction, the artificial occurrence of errors due... be examined without further shaping Elle's behavior. If a response was under strong enough stimulus control... were run, two sessions on each of five training days. These probe sessions were identical to the probe

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..., it is possible that training only one pair of behaviors at a time disrupted the stimulus control of the other... affected by the participant's training history. In the first two phases, errors for a cue occurred more... behaviors during the probe sessions. Stimulus control might have been achieved and maintained if all four.... To further examine the measure of the stimulus control that had been acquired, a reinforce-all procedure... the stimulus control that was taught by capturing it. By looking at the type of errors that were maintained

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... In addition to cues, other sources of control, such as the context and the training history... stimulusresponse relation (i.e. the subject's training history) carried over to the new contingency... in evaluating stimulus control is to decide whether to use extinction or reinforce-all procedures. In his review... of one stimulus, and on a differential-reinforcementof-low-rate (DRL) schedule in the presence... of a second stimulus. The FR schedule produced higher response rates than the DRL schedule. The pigeons were

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... have a different effect on stimulus control. Several trials are necessary to examine these effects...) or auditory properties. Temporal dimensions can describe the reinforcement history of the stimulus, including... manipulate the environment. To test if a behavior is under stimulus control of a particular cue, Pryor (2001... the target behaviors in pairs, allowing us to use all four of Pryor's criteria to test for stimulus control... environmental stimuli gain control over the behavior as well. So who really defines the cue for a particular

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... REFERENCES Freeman, T. J. and Lattal, K. A. (1992). Stimulus control of behavioral history... http://www.clickertraining.com/node/300 Rilling, M. (1977). Stimulus control and inhibitory processes. In W. K. Honig and J. E. R. Staddon.... Behaviorism, 7, 123-126. Touchette, P. E. (1971). Transfer of stimulus control: measuring the moment...). Discriminability and stimulus generalization. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 51, 79-88. Karen Pryor Clicker... Training. (2001). The rules for cues. Karen Pryor clickertraining.com. Retrieved from

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... training history with the experimenter. Pre-History Prior to the start of this study, Elle had been trained... was achieved. To test for stimulus control, probe sessions were run in which all four cues were presented... training experience with the experimenter. During this training, the audible "click" produced... by the clicker always served as a discriminative stimulus (SD) for returning to the trainer, which was always... "circle" and "touch" did not acquire complete control over which object she approached. Next, the spin

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... for alternative behaviors, more training is needed to reacquire stimulus control of a behavior that was previously... required to achieve stimulus control criteria. The number of sessions required to reach criteria is always... A possible cause for this pattern of error responding is the subject's reinforcement history... during the training sessions. Reinforcement for each behavior in the pair (circle/touch or spin/down... as the touch error. Spin and down errors under the circle cue were rarely observed during training sessions

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.... It was shown that even when behaviors are trained to criteria, the subject's training history could disrupt... the stimulus control. 31... behavior are more likely to occur after concentrated periods of training another behavior

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... delayed children to transfer stimulus control of a discrimination task. The children were first taught... to the appropriate black shape progressively delayed the presentation of the red stimulus. Stimulus control... pressed the correct key before the red stimulus was presented. During the first circle/touch training..., the same cue was presented for a large number of consecutive trials until stimulus control criteria were... reached. Once stimulus control criteria were met for the touch behavior, the circle behavior

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... in the contingency. However, by the end of Phase I, the touch behavior was under much stronger stimulus control... vulnerability to changes in contingency, either by switching from one training set to another or by exposure... to the spin/down training condition. Under the circle cue, the most errors occurred in the probe sessions after... the first switch from spin/down training to circle/touch training and also after the last set of spin/down... training (see Figure 5). The greatest number of errors under the Touch cue occurred in the probe sessions

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... for stimulus control were met (two consecutive sessions of 100% accuracy). After stimulus control was achieved... PHASE I Procedure In Phase I, there were two training conditions. In the circle/touch condition... and down behaviors were trained. In both conditions, training sessions were run until the criteria..., two consecutive probe sessions were run, in which all four cues were presented. Training sessions... and the subsequent two probe sessions were referred to as "sets." In most cases, three sets of training and probe

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