The power of teams: Do self-managing work teams influence managers' perceptions of potency? Page: 12
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and particular type of, social power. Numerous categories of power exist, such as global social
power (Nesler, Aguinis, Quigley, Lee, & Tedeschi, 1999), credibility power (Aguinis, Simonsen,
& Pierce, 1998), opportunistic power (Rawwas, Vitell, & Barnes, 1997), and facilitation power
(Humphrey, O'Malley, Johnston, & Bachman, 1988). Arguably, however, the most widely
accepted and rigorously applied theory of social power is that of French and Raven (1959). Their
bases of social power have been used extensively by researchers in the industrial and
organizational, as well as social psychology arenas, and also within educational, legal, religious,
and political settings. Although French and Raven link power with influence by defining power
in terms of influence, power has since been clearly established as a closely related, but distinct
construct (Hinkin & Schriesheim, 1990). Indeed, Raven's (1992) re-examination of the power
bases notes the importance of distinguishing power from influence tactics. Table 2 (see
Appendix A) lists the five original bases of social power presented by French and Raven along
with the sixth base, informational power, subsequently added by Raven (1965; as cited in Raven,
1992). Findings on informational power have been sporadic and some researchers have chosen to
merge it with expert power (Humphrey et al.) or to avoid it entirely (Martin, 1978; Rawwas et
al.). However, Raven (1992) warns that ignoring the distinctiveness of this power base is likely
to cause measurement problems. Therefore informational power is included if only for the sake
Some investigators have chosen to further differentiate the power bases into two
categories, formal and informal. Legitimate, reward, and coercive power are considered more
formal in nature while expert and referent power are more informal (Peiro & Melia, 2003;
Vecchio, 1997). According to Peiro and Melia, formal power is a socially determined
characteristic based on the person's hierarchical position in the organization (usually the
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Hass, Nicolette P. The power of teams: Do self-managing work teams influence managers' perceptions of potency?, thesis, December 2005; Denton, Texas. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4961/m1/18/: accessed May 25, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; .