Leadership Effectiveness: Investigating the Influences of Leader Sex, Gender, and Behaviors on Self and Other Perceptions

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Though increasing numbers of women are entering the workforce, a disproportionate number of women are placed into upper level management positions. Social role and role congruity theory both posit that women in leadership positions are likely to face more negative criticism than men in leadership positions. The purpose of the current study was to examine the influence of gender roles on leader behaviors as well as leaders' self perceived effectiveness. The study also examined third party raters' views of female and male leaders. Videotapes of forty-seven mixed sex groups with randomly appointed male and female leaders were used to examine ... continued below

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York, Christina D. December 2005.

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This dissertation is part of the collection entitled: UNT Theses and Dissertations and was provided by UNT Libraries to Digital Library, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. It has been viewed 883 times , with 4 in the last month . More information about this dissertation can be viewed below.

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  • York, Christina D.

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Though increasing numbers of women are entering the workforce, a disproportionate number of women are placed into upper level management positions. Social role and role congruity theory both posit that women in leadership positions are likely to face more negative criticism than men in leadership positions. The purpose of the current study was to examine the influence of gender roles on leader behaviors as well as leaders' self perceived effectiveness. The study also examined third party raters' views of female and male leaders. Videotapes of forty-seven mixed sex groups with randomly appointed male and female leaders were used to examine leader behaviors as well as raters' effectiveness ratings. Leaders' self perceived effectiveness ratings were also used. Gender roles of the leaders were assessed using the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). Results of a MANOVA indicated that leader gender roles did not lead to differences in leader behaviors exhibited among those in feminine, masculine, and androgynous groups. For female leaders, femininity was not related to feminine behaviors. Unexpectedly, for male leaders, masculinity was inversely related to masculine behaviors. With regard to raters' effectiveness ratings of the leaders, no differences were found in ratings based on leader gender. Further, for female leaders, degree of femininity and masculinity was not related to raters' effectiveness ratings. However, exploratory analyses indicated a significant positive relationship to exist between raters' effectiveness ratings of female leaders and total time female leaders spoke. A significant inverse relationship was found between raters' effectiveness ratings and frequency of speech initiations used among female leaders. Significant correlations between male and female leaders' self perceived effectiveness ratings and self perceived gender roles were found. Specifically, masculinity was positively related to female leaders self perceived effectiveness while femininity was negatively related to male leader self perceived effectiveness. Overall, the results of the current study were not consistent with social role theory and role congruity theory. Implications for organizations and women's career development are discussed. Limitations and suggestions for future directions in research are presented.

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  • December 2005

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  • Feb. 15, 2008, 4:39 p.m.

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  • Oct. 29, 2013, 11:20 a.m.

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York, Christina D. Leadership Effectiveness: Investigating the Influences of Leader Sex, Gender, and Behaviors on Self and Other Perceptions, dissertation, December 2005; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4903/: accessed September 24, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .