Religiosity and spirituality in younger and older adults.

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The present study examined the use of MacDonald's Expressions of Spirituality instrument with a younger and older adult sample. Specifically, MacDonald's proposed five factor model was assessed for fit with a sample of college age participants as well as a sample of adults over the age of 65. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess the fit of this model with samples, and this was followed by an exploratory factor analysis, and the results were considered in light of measurement equivalence and the definitions of the constructs of religiosity and spirituality. Further analyses examined levels of religiousness as well ... continued below

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Clarke, Shailagh August 2005.

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  • Clarke, Shailagh

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The present study examined the use of MacDonald's Expressions of Spirituality instrument with a younger and older adult sample. Specifically, MacDonald's proposed five factor model was assessed for fit with a sample of college age participants as well as a sample of adults over the age of 65. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess the fit of this model with samples, and this was followed by an exploratory factor analysis, and the results were considered in light of measurement equivalence and the definitions of the constructs of religiosity and spirituality. Further analyses examined levels of religiousness as well as relationships between religiousness/spirituality and potential correlates, such as postformal thinking, life events including changes and losses, emotional and physical well-being, and family upbringing, comparing young and older adult samples. Results of the confirmatory factor analysis revealed a solution with a better fit than MacDonald's model for both younger and older adults. While the number of factors were the same for both samples, item loadings and cross-loadings differed between the younger and older adult samples. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a four factor solution, with religiousness and spirituality items loading onto one factor. With regard to measurement equivalence, findings appear to indicate that the five factor solution and MacDonald's Expressions of Spirituality instrument may not be as useful with older adults. Additionally, findings are discussed with regard to the measurement of the constructs of religiosity and spirituality. In addition to measurement issues, several findings pointed to differences between the younger and older adult samples. For young adults, more life changes were related to higher levels of postformal thinking, but for older adults more life losses were related to higher levels of postformal thinking. Also, the older adult sample had higher levels of religiousness than the young adult sample. Several results were the same for younger and older adults. First, no correlation existed between religious commitment and postformal thinking. Second, a family history of religiousness was positively correlated with current religiousness. Third, for younger and older adults, religiousness was positively correlated with emotional well-being for low loss groups. Limitations of the current study are discussed, and implications for clinical practice and future research are addressed.

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  • August 2005

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  • Feb. 15, 2008, 4:16 p.m.

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  • Feb. 29, 2008, 1:12 p.m.

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Clarke, Shailagh. Religiosity and spirituality in younger and older adults., dissertation, August 2005; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4892/: accessed May 26, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .