Effects of Coumarate 3-Hydroxylase Down-regulation on Lignin Structure

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Article on the effects of coumarate 3-hydroxylase down-regulation on lignin structure.

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11 p.

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Ralph, John; Akiyama, Takuya; Kim, Hoon; Lu, Fachuang; Schatz, Paul F.; Marita, Jane M. et al. March 31, 2006.

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Article on the effects of coumarate 3-hydroxylase down-regulation on lignin structure.

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11 p.

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Abstract: Down-regulation of the gene encoding 4-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) in alfalfa massively but predictably increased the proportion of p-hydroxyphenyl (P) units relative to the normally dominant guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) units. Stem levels of up to ∼65% P (from wild-type levels of ∼1%) resulting from down-regulation of C3H were measured by traditional degradative analyses as well as two-dimensional13C-1H correlative NMR methods. Such levels put these transgenics well beyond the P:G:S compositional bounds of normal plants; p-hydroxyphenyl levels are reported to reach a maximum of 30% in gymnosperm severe compression wood zones but are limited to a few percent in dicots. NMR also revealed structural differences in the interunit linkage distribution that characterizes a lignin polymer. Lower levels of key β-aryl ether units were relatively augmented by higher levels of phenylcoumarans and resinols. The C3H-deficient alfalfa lignins were devoid of β-1 coupling products, highlighting the significant differences in the reaction course for p-coumaryl alcohol versus the two normally dominant monolignols, coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols. A larger range of dibenzodioxocin structures was evident in conjunction with an approximate doubling of their proportion. The nature of each of the structural units was revealed by long range13C-1H correlation experiments. For example, although β-ethers resulted from the coupling of all three monolignols with the growing polymer, phenylcoumarans were formed almost solely from coupling reactions involving p-coumaryl alcohol; they resulted from both coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol in the wild-type plants. Such structural differences form a basis for explaining differences in digestibility and pulping performance of C3H-deficient plants.

Copyright © 2006 American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

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  • Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2006, Rockville: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, pp. 8843-8853

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  • Publication Title: Journal of Biological Chemistry
  • Volume: 281
  • Issue: 13
  • Page Start: 8843
  • Page End: 8853
  • Pages: 11
  • Peer Reviewed: Yes

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  • March 31, 2006

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  • Jan. 22, 2015, 9:04 a.m.

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Ralph, John; Akiyama, Takuya; Kim, Hoon; Lu, Fachuang; Schatz, Paul F.; Marita, Jane M. et al. Effects of Coumarate 3-Hydroxylase Down-regulation on Lignin Structure, article, March 31, 2006; [Rockville, Maryland]. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc488185/: accessed August 17, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT College of Arts and Sciences.