Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students Page: 86

Looking first at receptive skills, the mean for students in the experimental group for
listening was M= 3.69 (intermediate mid level), and the mean for self-rated reading ability was
M= 3.85 (upper intermediate mid level). The mean for the control group for listening ability was
M= 3.77 (in the intermediate mid level), and reading ability was M= 4.65 (intermediate high
level).
Continuing with the productive skills, the mean for students in the experimental group
was M= 3.00 for speaking ability (intermediate mid level), and their writing ability as M= 3.23
(also in the intermediate mid level). The control group self-rated speaking ability as M= 3.27
(intermediate mid level) and writing ability as M= 3.88 (upper intermediate mid level). Full
explanations of levels are presented in Appendix F.
Table 5
Analysis of Variance for Student Rating of Listening Skills by Group
Source df Sum of Squares Mean Squares F p
Between 1 0.09 0.08 .04 .85
Within 50 100.15 2.00
Total 51 100.23
There was not a statistically significant difference between the two groups for listening,
F(1, 50) = .04,p = .85, and speaking, F(1, 50)= .80,p = .38 (Table 5 and Table 6). However,
reading F(1, 50) = 4.36, p = .04 and writing F(1, 50) = 4.26, p <.05 showed statistically
significant differences (Table 7 and Table 8).

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Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students, dissertation, December 2004; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/m1/95/ocr/: accessed November 20, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .