Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students Page: 73
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Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance Design
Composition 1 (PRE) Composition 3 (POST)
Control Word count Word count
Experimental Word count Word count
Research question 2: How will the systematic use of a grammar practice software
program (Spanish Partner) affect the quality of L2 learners' compositions as measured by total
composition score, and the subscale areas of Content, Organization, Vocabulary,
Grammar/Language Use, and Mechanics (spelling, accentuation, and punctuation)?
The quality of the written product is a measure of composition skill and development of
fluency since ACTFL (Breiner-Sanders, Swender, & Terry, 2002) defines fluency as a
flow in the written language as perceived by the reader, made possible by clarity of
expression, the acceptable ordering of ideas, use of vocabulary and syntax appropriate to
the context, with words, phrases, and idiomatic expressions that go together by common
lexical convention. (p. 14)
The composition rubric measures the five subscale components. Measures of improvement in
each area of composition for the experimental group with comparison to the control were
determined by a repeated measures ANOVA design, specifically a mixed factor ANOVA. In this
study the case was a pre and post design with measures being the first and last composition of the
semester, the independent variable being scheduled practice using Spanish Partner. The
dependent variables are total composition score, Content, Organization, Vocabulary,
Grammar/Language Use, and Mechanics. Descriptive statistics such as the average or mean
score, range of the scores for both the experimental and control group, frequency distribution of
scores, and standard deviation were examined.
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Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students, dissertation, December 2004; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/m1/82/: accessed February 24, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .