Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students Page: 69
Wormuth, Hartfiel, & Hughey, 1981), the instrument has been used as both as a holistic and
analytic measure for second language writing research (Polio, 2003), and modified for use in
foreign language composition evaluation (Hedgcock & Lefkowitz, 1992). The profile contains
five component areas, measured using a continuous scale, which can give a measure of overall
composition quality. The five areas are Content, Organization, Vocabulary, Grammar/Language
Use, and Mechanics. Research regarding the factors that influence readers most when evaluating
composition guided the selection of the subscales. Each subscale is weighted according to its
estimated contribution to written communication and has descriptors and criteria.
Consider Content as an example.
27-30 Knowledgeable; substantive; thorough development of thesis; relevant to topic.
22-26 Some knowledge of subject; adequate range; limited development of thesis;
mostly relevant to topic, but lacks detail.
17-21 Limited knowledge of subject; little substance; inadequate development of topic.
13-16 Does not show knowledge of subject; non-substantive; not pertinent, or not
enough to rate.
Content, with 30 possible points, is comprised of knowledge of the subject, several main points
discussed with a specific method of development. The subscales of Organization, Vocabulary,
Grammar/Language Use, and Mechanics follow suit. The issue of semantics or meaning is
addressed in the underlying principle in the design of the Composition Profile-the fact that it is
the reader's overall impression of the message communicated in the writing sample that matters
most. "The five component scales thus are intended to be regarded as five different windows or
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Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students, dissertation, December 2004; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/m1/78/ocr/: accessed July 25, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .