Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students Page: 68

Composition 2 (not included as a data source): Discuss your professional goals. This
should include what you are studying now and what type of work you want to do. Talk
about what your job will be like.
Composition 3 (posttest): Imagine that you are one of the "rich and famous" and would
like to take a trip. Plan your trip including: where you would go, who you would invite,
how you would travel, where you would stay, the clothes you would wear, the things that
you would do in that place.
Composition 2 was not utilized in data analysis because the time intervals between writing
assignments were not equal (thus, a nonequivalent groups pretest-posttest only design was used
in this study). The topic is included here to illustrate the types of writing topics students
completed during the semester. The composition tasks were designed to take advantage of the
thematic vocabulary and grammatical structures studied at the particular time in the course; for
example, the first composition task elicited writing on an issue affecting the students'
environment. This is parallel to the chapter entitled El medio ambiente (The Environment) with
vocabulary terms including the ozone layer, recycling, and natural resources to public
transportation, crime, and the fast pace of life. The National Standards (Standards, 1999)
encourage the learner to discuss personal events and perspectives in writing at the intermediate
level. The first composition written in the course served as the baseline or pretest comparison
with the final composition in the semester serving as the posttest. Students were instructed to
always use a pseudonym and not to put their name or other identifier on their compositions.
Composition rubric. All essays were collected and randomized prior to grading. The
rubric (Appendix J) utilized for composition assessment was adapted from what has come to be
known as the Jacobs scale. Originally called the ESL Composition Profile (Jacobs, Zingraf,


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Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students, dissertation, December 2004; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/m1/77/ocr/: accessed July 22, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .

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