Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students Page: 64

newer than Windows98. Sign in sheets are available in the FLLC for students to document their
independent time working in lab and analysis of results must account for the motivated students
that go to lab on their own for grammar practice on Spanish Partner.
Participants
The participants for this study were 52 students of intermediate-level Spanish at the
university. The sample population consisted of two sections of SPAN 2040, each with 30
students enrolled. All students agreed to participate. Participation was voluntary, and no
monetary compensation or extra credit was awarded. One section served as the control group, the
other as the experimental group. In the experimental group, four students did not complete the
course resulting in 26 participants (n = 12 males, n = 14 females). In the control group, three
students did not complete the course and one doctoral student (age 31-35) was considered unlike
the other participants who were undergraduates and primarily ages 16 to 25; also, the graduate
student was in the English program. This resulted in a total number of 26 participants (n = 12
males, n = 14 females). The majority of the students in the course were fulfilling the College of
Arts and Sciences language requirement of six hours of a foreign language at the intermediate
level (LANG 2040 and 2050), with prerequisites of LANG 1010 and 1020 or credit by
examination.
While utilizing the two sections can be considered a convenience sample, having the
same instructor for both sections had the advantage of controlling for instructor effects, often
stated to be a threat to internal validity. Selection bias (i.e., the comparability of groups prior to
participation in the study) was addressed by looking at group characteristics in addition to

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Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students, dissertation, December 2004; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/m1/73/ocr/: accessed December 15, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .