Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students Page: 52
In a study examining fluency, Miller (2000) introduces an approach to studying the
writing process that analyzes temporal aspects of the composing event and illustrates the
application of the research tool with findings from a study of L1 and L2 writers. By recording
keystroke presses made during composition of a text, the researcher examined pausing, fluency,
and revision activity of one undergraduate Greek student studying in the British university
Computer-Mediated Grammar Instruction
The computer has made definite contributions to learning a second language. Grammar
drills are one area that has benefited from the technology in terms of the volume of data that can
be easily retrieved, the immediate and interactive feedback, and individualization of instruction
possible. McCarthy (1994) obtained responses via a survey of 20 students who utilized computer
grammar drills over a six-month period for reinforcement of topics presented in class. By a ratio
of two to one the positive comments outweighed the negative. In most cases it was computer-
oriented issues themselves (required precision of typing, slow processing at times, eye fatigue
from looking at the screen) that students complained about while the ability to self-pace was
Liou, Wang, and Hung-Yeh (1992) conducted a one-semester study with 42 college
freshman EFL majors that addressed whether and in which way grammatically computer-assisted
language learning can help English writing instruction in a Taiwanese setting. The courseware
was drill and practice for remediation with a control group (n = 22) who did homework sheets
that they self-corrected and the experimental group (n = 20) who did 10 CALL lessons over a 10-
week period. Results suggest that classroom instruction combined with grammatical CALL is
helpful to writing.
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Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students, dissertation, December 2004; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/m1/61/ocr/: accessed March 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .