Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students Page: 51
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Foreign language educators continue to seek ways to facilitate the writing process, and
developments in technology may provide beneficial avenues. Yet there are both supporters and
opponents to including the computer in writing instruction and it can engender "enthusiasm,
resistance, controversy, and mixed results" (Blankenship, 1998/1999, p. 75).
Computer-Assisted Second Language Research
Computers serve not only as a language-learning tool but also as an instrument to aid in
research. Numerous studies utilized Systeme-D, the French language version of Atajo. New's
study (1994/1995) was designed to determine whether intermediate level university students of
French revised when writing in the foreign language and if so, if they revised for form or content
or both. Results from compositions, logs from Systeme-D, and videotapes indicated that both the
self-reported good writers and poor writers did revise their compositions, more surface-level
rather than meaning-level changes. In post-writing questionnaires, the writers seemed to consider
communicating the message of primary importance, but in reality, they acted more out of
Baily (1992/1993) classified inquiries to Systeme-D as Adjusting the Message,
Circumlocution, Synonyms, or New Words compensation strategies. The length of compositions
and the number of inquiries varied widely for each participant and each composition itself,
nonetheless, a consistent 10% to 13% of inquiries could be tabulated as compensation strategies.
Rogers' 1998 study compared the use of CMC and Systeme-D on student writing and found the
effects of using either medium to be minimal. The students enjoyed working independently with
Systime-D as well as the opportunity to interact via computer mediated communication and
overall had positive attitudes toward both.
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Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students, dissertation, December 2004; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/m1/60/: accessed January 22, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .