Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students Page: 47
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learning is one of the benefits of technology-enhanced language learning. Pan and Zbikowski
(1997) also affirm the benefits of composing in that the learner becomes a more critical user of
the technology in their daily life.
Technology-Enhanced Language Learning
Computer-assisted language learning or CALL perhaps remains the more commonly
recognized term to refer to any language learning activity involving a computer in a significant
role, including both tutor and tool uses, but Bush (1997) utilized the expression "technology-
enhanced language learning" (TELL) which suggests a more inclusive sense of technology and
its impact on teaching and learning language. Therefore, it is not just what the computer is able
to do that is significant but also the interaction of the learner with the technology. Levy (1997)
puts CALL into an interdisciplinary context including psychology, applied and computational
linguistics, instructional technology and design, human-computer interaction, and artificial
intelligence that reinforces the need for a more descriptive term such as technology-enhanced
language learning. In this study, technology-enhanced language learning and the way in which
computer-based grammar and vocabulary practice affect composition are the foci.
Research into the effectiveness of technology-enhanced language learning to improve
student achievement is of interest at all educational levels, especially in light of the federal No
Child Left Behind Act's Enhancing Education through Technology Program established in 2002.
Administrators, educators, and other education stakeholders are concerned with utilizing the best
methods and technology tools available to improve and enhance student performance. A survey
of experts on computer-assisted language learning (Hubbard, 2003) affirms that a substantial
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Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students, dissertation, December 2004; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/m1/56/?rotate=270: accessed February 21, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .