Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students Page: 46

the ability to problem-solve in which the learner progresses by advancing from object-regulation
to self-regulation. The surroundings or environment influences the learner at the object-
regulation state while when learning is mediated by someone else by providing scaffolding or the
strategies needed to solve the problem a learner is considered other-regulated. Pennington (1996)
asserts that:
in the zone of proximal development where social mediation occurs, both the
unconscious and the conscious forms of input by the teacher and other students during the
writing stages can assist the non-native student writer to progress to a higher level of
written output and language acquisition. (p. 12)
But it is important to note that mediation is limited in availability from one teacher and that often
students learning a second language struggle with anxiety and affect, building fluency and
internalizing and utilizing grammar. Mediated interpretations of meaning or understandings can
happen additionally through other tools that may include written materials, the classroom
environment, nonverbal gestures or technology (Hawkins, 2004). Technology may be able to
speed this transition from other-regulated to self-regulation in composition. Spanish Partner,
approximating the concept of grammar practice beginning with the more mechanical and
progressing, under some topics, to communicative serves as the technological scaffolding for the
students, encouraging them to convert inner speech or understanding of grammar to a
measurable, outer construct in later written composition. Ultimately it is the realm of
composition, and with the "knowledgeable other" of the writing assistant Atajo, that pushes the
student forward to communicate as well as provides a means to test their language learning or
interlanguage in the ZPD. Atajo "supports a learner-directed, query-driven model of language
acquisition" (Martin, 1999). This sense of learner control and individualization of instruction and


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Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students, dissertation, December 2004; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/m1/55/ocr/: accessed August 16, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .