Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students Page: 41

Technology and Technology Integration
Technology and its applications in socio-cultural, economic, and political settings made a
tremendous impact on the twentieth century and plays an essential role in American society
today. Product development and rapidly changing and expanding applications of technology
appear to be on track to transform this century as well. Inventions such as the telephone,
microwave, satellite, and computer have revolutionized the way we live, learn, work, and
communicate with others. Since technology so profoundly touches our lives, the Congressional
Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) was established in 1972 in order to assist lawmakers
with understanding the existing and possible influences of technological applications and to be a
resource to shape public policy. Until its closing in 1995, the OTA produced reports in such
diverse areas as agricultural technology, aging, biological research, communications, defense
technology, education, health care, law enforcement, space, and transportation, thus revealing the
all-encompassing position of technology in this country.
Technology in education has been a central issue in educational reform and innovation in
recent years. In 1997, President Bill Clinton made a Call to Action for American Education in
the 21st Century that outlined a plan to have a "talented teacher in every classroom." One
component was to expand efforts to help teachers become technology literate and to use
technology to improve training available to teachers. There have been considerable efforts in the
area of pre-service teacher education in technology as evidenced by Preparing Tomorrow's
Teachers to Use Technology (PT3) projects. "The key is integration; technology has become so
important that it cannot be 'added on' but must be infused into the context of teaching and
learning" (McLafferty, 2000). While in the mid-twentieth century educational technology
consisted of televisions, overhead projectors, phonographs, tape recorders, radios and cameras,

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Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students, dissertation, December 2004; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/m1/50/ocr/: accessed September 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .