Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students Page: 39
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It is interesting to note that there seems to be an emerging acceptance of varying methods
in teaching grammar according to the learner's needs and curricular goals in ESL and English as
a Foreign Language (EFL) settings (Hinkel & Fotos, 2002). In fact, Hinkel and Fotos (2002)
encourage a familiarity with the changes in grammar instruction over time to be able to
implement the most effective combination of approaches. Perhaps the English Journal reflection
of 75 years ago rings true today:
The educational world believes that the right kind of grammar, taught in the right way,
builds up in the pupil power of a most desirable and essential order. That is, power to
express one's self and power to receive the expression of others-in short, power to
speak, to write, to listen, and to read. Inherent in all these, of course, is the power to
think; none of the others is possible except in connection with that. When we English
teachers are exhorted to "teach clear thinking," we may say: "To me this means 'teach
clear speaking, writing, listening, reading.'" If grammar is to help us do these noble
things, it must be the right kind of grammar, taught in the right way. (Moffett, 1928/2003,
If this "grammar revival" tendency is being seen in English and ESL, can acquiescence in
foreign languages be far behind? Best of all, an acceptance of a variety of grammar teaching
methods multiplies and expands the tools in a teacher's repertoire. Beyond the academic
arguments, there is evidence that second language learners favor grammar instruction as well as
error correction and consider formal grammar instruction an essential part of mastery of a foreign
language (Ikpia, 2001; Schulz, 2001).
Pertaining to the relationship between grammar and writing, Greenia (1992b) posits that
the relationship is one of "writing almost invariably at the service of learning grammar" (p. 35),
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Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students, dissertation, December 2004; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/m1/48/?rotate=90: accessed March 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .