Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students Page: 38

Grammar was associated with linear thought and "perceived as anathema to process because its
teaching had always been identified with teacher-centered classrooms" (Devet, 2002, p. 10).
What some practitioners and researchers might refer to as the "grammar wars" persist with
regard to the significance, inclusion and methodology of grammar instruction. Teaching
grammar may range from purely communicative approaches to teacher-led explanations and
translation exercises. In New Perspectives on Grammar Teaching in Second Language
Classrooms (2002) Hinkel affirms:
In light of the research conducted in second language learning and acquisition, it appears
that although overt instruction in grammar does not necessarily lead to direct
improvement in language learning, it can serve as an indirect cognitive means of
increasing learners' exposure to language and their ability to notice discourse and
language features. From this perspective, classroom analyses of time frames and the
attendant tense uses can also add to learners' awareness of language structures and
systems and benefit the development of second language writing proficiency and fluency
(p. 196).
Yet it is also Hinkel that notes that grammatical accuracy has a strong impact on evaluations of
nonnative speakers' writing and that ESL students do not always connect knowledge gained in
grammar classes with their writing because they are taught separately. Foreign language learners
are also affected by the need for grammatical accuracy, as it is a traditional component of
composition evaluation. Kim (2001/2002) examined how the presence or absence of an explicit
expectation to produce grammatically correct texts affected the revising processes of two ESL
students. The author suggests that the different expectations did not result in different written
products and claims that teaching grammar might not inhibit development of fluency.

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Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students, dissertation, December 2004; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/m1/47/ocr/: accessed October 22, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .